Journal of Applied Molecular Cell Biology


ISSN: 2412-2580
Short Key Title: J App Mol Cell Bio
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/24122580
Start Year: 2014

CARCINOGENIC FACTORS OF BREAST CANCER IN FEMALE OF PAKISTAN
Mehjabeen Aslam, Rafia Mansoor
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, 400100, Pakistan.
Keywords: Nulliparity, breast cancer, polycystic ovaries
Abstract

Among all forms of cancers, Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in females worldwide. It is in fact the second leading causes of death among female population. However, incidence rate of breast cancer is higher among Pakistani females compare to other countries of Asia. The major factors that play important role in the development of breast carcinoma are the genetics and environment, the reproductive experience, the effect of endogenous and exogenous hormones in females and the change in immune status. However, in the Pakistani women hormonal factors including age of menarche, use of oral contraceptives, central obesity, family history, polycystic ovaries, nulliparity, late age at first pregnancy, smoking, alcohol consumption and lack of breast feeding are some of the most common risk factors developing breast cancer. Furthermore, the high prevalence of BRCA mutations indicates the importance of genetic counseling. Focus should be given to find out the genetic factors causing breast cancer in Pakistani population to elucidate the genetic cause leading to breast cancer development in order to prevent and decrease its incidence.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
Year:2015
Volume:2
First Page:10
Last Page:14
Publisher Id:JAppMolCellBio (2015 ). 2. 10-14
Article History:
Received:May 7, 2015
Accepted:August 3, 2015
Collection year:2015
First Published:August 25, 2015


© 2016 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license. You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. Under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. No additional restrictions You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits
Editor in Chief
Bruno Perillo  (PhD)
Istituto di Scienze dell, Alimentazione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Roma, 52, 83100 Avellino, Italy.

Bibliography

Dr. Bruno Perillo PhD is associated with Istituto di Scienze dell, Alimentazione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Roma, 52, 83100 Avellino, Italy. He has contributed in book chapter entitled “Analysis of posttranslational modifications in the control of chromatin plasticity observed at estrogen-responsive sites in human breast cancer cells” Methods Mol. Biol. 1204, 59-69. 2014. Whereas, his research work is published in renowned credible journals.  

Journal Highlights
Abbreviation: J App Mol Cell Bio
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/24122580
Frequency: Annual
Current Volume: 4 (2017)
Next volume: December, 2018 (Volume 5)
Back volumes: 1-4
Starting year: 2014
Nature: Online
Submission: Online
Language: English

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Subject & Scope

  • Genomic analysis
  • Cell or tissue technologies
  • Cellular imaging
  • Gene expression analysis imaging
  • Gene transfe
  • Structural biology  
  • Molecular Cell
  • High throughput screening
  • Medical and small animal
  • Experimental organisms
  • Protein techniques
  • Signal transduction techniques
  • Etymology
  • Molecular genetics
  • Features of inheritance
  • Notation and diagrams
  • Multiple gene interactions
  • DNA and chromosomes
  • Reproduction
  • Recombination and genetic linkage
  • Gene expression
  • Genetic code
  • Nature and nurture
  • Gene regulation
  • Genetic change
  • Mutations
  • Natural selection and evolution
  • Model organisms
  • Medicine
  • Research methods
  • DNA sequencing and genomics
  • Classical, Clinical and Developmental immunology
  • Immunotherapy
  • Diagnostic immunology
  • Cancer immunology
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic acids
  • Metabolism
  • Carbohydrates as energy source
  • Glycolysis (anaerobic and aerobic)
  • Gluconeogenesis
  • Molecular cloning
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • Gel electrophoresis
  • Macromolecule blotting and probing
  • Microarrays
  • Allele-specific oligonucleotide

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