FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND DETERMINATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF POMEGRANATE (Punica granatum) GEL.
Afendi Dahlan, Mohd Asyraf Mohd Razali
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, Lot 3410 Jalan Teknokrat 3, Cyberjaya 63000, Selangor, Malaysia
Keywords: Antibacterial Activity, Pomegranate (Punica Granatum)
Previous studies have shown that Punica granatum (P. granatum) extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the aim of study was to formulate and determine the effectiveness of antimicrobial properties of gel containing P. granatum methanol extract against selected common skin pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans.
Extraction process utilizes P. granatum peel and methanol as solvent. Using the disc diffusion method, different concentrations (25 %w/v, 50 %w/v, 75 %w/v and 100 %w/v) of P. granatum extract were initially tested against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans for their antibacterial activity. Gel formulations were then prepared with varying concentration of the extract as active ingredient. Antimicrobial activity of P. granatum gel was determined by using agar well diffusion method. The gel formulations were stored at 4°C, 25°C and 37°C for one month. Evaluation on the pH, physical characteristic and antimicrobial activity were then conducted on the gel formulations.
Both extract and gel showed highest antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis followed by S. aureus and then P. aeruginosa. Surprisingly no antifungal activity was observed against C. albicans. The concentration of extract alone and in gel were directly proportional to antibacterial activity. All gels formulated showed satisfactory physical characteristics even after a month of storage at different temperature. As expected, gel stored at 4°C showed the least decrease in antibacterial activity.
P. granatum has potential to be formulated as gel to treat bacterial skin infection caused by S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Further studies are required in order to optimize the antimicrobial activity of P. granatum gel.
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