FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF SIX MEDICINAL PLANTS OF BANGLADESH: A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT
Department of Pharmacy, Bangladesh University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.Department of Pharmacy, University of Science and technology Chittagong, Bangladesh.Department of Pharmacy, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh
Keywords: Ipomoea paniculata; withania somnifera; mikania cordata; abroma augusta; bombax ceiba; oxalis corniculata; antioxidant; DPPH free-radical.
Abstract

The crude meoh extracts of six medicinal plants of bangladesh (ipomoea paniculata, withania somnifera, mikania cordata, abroma augusta, bombax ceiba, and oxalis corniculata) were screened for primary types of phytochemicals presence and in-vitro anti-oxidant activity by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl-hydrate (dpph) free radical scavenging assay. Of all of them, the meoh extracts of the leaves of withania somnifera and oxalis corniculata showed strong antioxidant activity (ic50:27.8 and 19.98 ?g/ml), while the meoh extracts of ipomoea paniculata, abroma augusta and bombax ceiba showed moderate activity (ic50: 86.48, 101.4 and 58.6 ?g/ml, respectively). Moreover, mild anti-oxidant activity was observed with the meoh extract of mikania cordata (ic50 > 300 ?g/ml).

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
Year:2015
Volume:7
First Page:78
Last Page:84
Publisher Id:19204159.7:1.2015
Article History:
Received:December 13, 2014
Accepted:December 18, 2014
Collection year:2014
First Published:January 1, 2015

1. INTRODUCTION

Free radicals are metastable chemical species which are generated as by-products of various biochemical reactions in vivo. These radicals can be emerged as molecular sharks, which if not scavenged effectively on time, are capable of damaging crucial bio-molecules present in cell membranes, mitochondria, DNA, etc. and thus alter various pathophysiological conditions. The role of free radicals, also called ‘reactive oxygen species’ (ROS), has been well-identified in the pathogenesis of many disease conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, cardiovascular disorders, cystic fibrosis, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Parkinsonism, Alzheimer’s disease), gastrointestinal ulcerogenesis, AIDS and even early senescence [1,2]. ROS is a collective term, which includes not only the oxygen radicals (O2.., and .OH) but also some non-radical derivatives of oxygen. These include hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and ozone (O3) [3].

Search for compounds or preparations with antioxidant activities, has thus become an important strategy for the treatment of such ROS generated illness. Several plant extracts and some phytochemicals have been found to have quite prominent antioxidant activity [4-6]. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the crude extracts of different parts of six plant which are  available in  Bangladesh, namely  Ipomoea paniculata (Root), Mikania cordata (Bark), Withania somnifera (Root),  Abroma augusta (Leaves), Bombax ceiba (Root), and Oxalis corniculata (Whole plant). The botanical and ethno pharmacological features (along with the parts used in extractions) of the plants are enlisted in Table 1.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1 Plant Materials

All plants were collected from Natore Medicinal plant village in the month of March, 2013 and were authenticated by Mr. Md. Mustafizur Rahman, Lecturer, Department of Botany, Rajshahi University.

2.2 Extraction of Plant Materials

Selected plants are Ipomoea paniculata (Root), Mikania cordata (Bark), Withania somnifera (Root), Abroma augusta (Leaves), Bombax ceiba (Root), and Oxalis corniculata (Whole plant). All leaves, root, barks collected from mature tree. Plant parts are collected, cleaned and dried inside the laboratory and finally dried at 400c inside the oven. Form each plant part, about 600 g of powdered plant material was taken in a clean, flat bottomed glass container (4 L) and soaked in 1300 mL methanol as solvent. 

 Table 1. The botanical and ethnopharmacological features of the selected plants

Plants

Type

Traditional use

Chemical constituents

Reported bioactivity

Part(s) used  (solvent)

Ipomoea paniculata

(Convolvulaceae)

Perrenial climber

Uterine pain,

sexual disability, infertility,

gastric ulcer, ulcerative colitis, etc.[7].

Alantolactone,  sitosterol,  inunolide [8] ;  glycoside paniculatin [9].

Stimulant effect on the myocardium and respiration [9]; hypotensive effect [10].

Tuber

(MeOH)

(Yield: 10%)

Withania somnifera

(Solanaceae)

 

Shrub

Aphrodisiac, sedative, rejuvenative and life prolonging properties [11].

Tropane, tigloyxtropine, choline, anaferine, pelletierine, isopelletierine, anahygrine, and cuscohygrine [12].

Adaptogen, antibiotic,

aboritifacient, aphrosidiac, astringent, antiinflammatory, deobstruent, diuretic, narcotic [13].

Roots

(MeOH)

(Yield: 12%)

Mikania cordata

Perrenial creeper

Treatment of dyspepsia, dysentery. anti-carcinogenic [14].

Sesquiterpene dilactones, deoxy mikanolide and scandenolid [15,16].                      

Antimicrobial, analgesic [16].

Antiulcer [17].

Anticarcinogenic [14].

Whole plant

(Methanol)

(Yield: 16%)

Abroma augusta

(Malvaceae)

 

Tree

Uterine disorders, gonorrhea, skin problems, dysmenorrhoeal [18].

Alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, megastigmanes, benzohydrofurans and their glycosides and

phenylethanoid glycoside[19].

Hypoglycemic [20], antioxidant [21]

 anti-inflammatory [22].

Leaves

(Methanol)

(Yield: 14%)

 

Bombax ceiba

(Malvaceae)

 

 

Tree

 

Stimulant, haemostatic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, antidiarrhoeal, cardiotonic, emetic, demulcent, antidysenteric, and antipyretic [23,24].

cholesterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and a-amyrin, hydrocarbons, seven flavones:

isohemigossypol-1-methyl ester, acid lactone, bombaxquinone, lacinilene C, sesquiterpene lactone

Antioxidant, hypoglycemic, analgesic,  antibacterial,  hepatoprotective [25].

Roots

(Methanol)

(Yield: 11%)

 

Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae)

Herb

The plant is cooling, antiseptic, astringent, appetiser and antiscorbutic, useful in fevers and biliousness, juice of the plant cures scurvy, piles, anaemia and tympanites, dysentery, improves appetite and digestion [26].

Glycoside, ascorbic acid, carotene, isovitexin, citric acid, etc. [27].

Antibacterial [28]; Cardio protective and antioxidant [29].

 

Whole plant(Methanol)

(Yield: 12%)

 

2.3 Chemicals

Used chemicals like Ascorbic acid collected form Loba, India and DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) from Aldrich, USA.

2.4 Phytochemical screening

All of the crude extracts were qualitatively analyzed for the presence of different chemical groups, such as   alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins [31].

2.5 Screening for Antioxidant Activity

Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined on the basis of the modified method of Gupta et al. [32]. The free radicals scavenging activity of all extract were measured by decreased in the absorbance of EtOH solution of DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) . Stock solutions (1 mg/ml) of the plant extracts were prepared in EtOH from which serial dilutions were carried out to obtain concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 mg/ml. Diluted solutions (2 ml) were added to 2 ml of a 0.004% ethanol solution of DPPH, mixed and allowed to stand for 30 min for reaction to occur. The absorbance was determined at 517 nm and from these values corresponding percentage of inhibitions were calculated. Then % inhibitions were plotted against concentration and from the graph IC50 was calculated. The experiment was performed in triplicate and average absorption was noted for each concentration. Ascorbic acid was used as positive control.

3. RESULTS

3.1 Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis

Results of phytochemical functional group tests are tabulated in Table 2. Flavonoid one of the phytochemicals gives + ve results for all plant samples. Glycosides present in all samples excepting Ipomoea paniculata.

Table 2. Results of Phytochemical Screening of the selected plants

 3.2 Antioxidant Activity Study   

Antioxidant activities of the extracts were tested using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Results indicated that the MeOH extract of Withania somnifera and Oxalis corniculata showed strong antioxidant activity, IC50:27.8 and 19.98 mg/ml, respectively and on the the other hand Ipomoea paniculata, Abroma augusta and Bomba ceiba showed moderate activity like IC50: 86.48, 101.4 and 58.6 mg/ml, respectively. All results are summarized in Table 3.

 

Sample

Concentration (mg/ml)

% inhibition

IC50 (mg/ml)

 MeOH extract of

 I. paniculata

 

1

1.44±0.01

86.48

5

9.17±0.01

10

15.33±0.001

50

42.24±0.025

100

45.93±0.018

500

83.97±0.01

 MeOH extract of W. somnifera

 

1

28.66±0.011

27.80

5

37.79±0.013

10

43.86±0.011

50

45.67±0.035

100

47.75±0.028

500

86.15±0.041

 MeOH extract of M. cordata

 

1

0.94±0.016

>300

5

2.20±0.017

10

3.99±0.019

50

9.98±0.045

100

24.31±0.038

500

56.21±0.051

MeOH extract of

 A. augusta

1

10.24±0.013

101.4

5

27.98±0.019

10

40.49±0.021

50

46.37±0.055

100

47.61±0.038

500

58.57±0.047

MeOH extract of

B. ceiba

1

6.54±0.015

58.60

5

16.85±0.012

10

24.57±0.011

50

47.24±0.035

100

58.58±0.028

500

77.73±0.019

MeOH extract of

O. corniculata

1

6.54±0.015

19.98

5

16.85±0.012

10

24.57±0.011

50

47.24±0.035

100

58.58±0.028

500

77.73±0.019

 

Ascorbic acid

1

5.71±0.001

7.95vxcz

5

38.4±0.002

10

69.3±0.001

50

92.09±0.001

100

92.58±0.004

500

95.44±0.001

Values are expressed as mean ± S.D; Number of Trail, n =3

 4. DISCUSSION

DPPH is one of the free radicals widely used for testing preliminary radical scavenging activity of a compound, drug, crude drug or a plant extract. In the present study, it was noticed that the MeOH extracts of Withania somnifera and Oxalis corniculata showed strong antioxidant activity, while MeOH extracts Ipomoea paniculata, Abroma augusta  and Bomba ceiba showed moderate activity. Remaining MeOH extract of Mikania cordata showed mild free-radical scavenging activity. The free radical scavenging property may be one of the mechanisms by which this drug is effective in traditional medicine.

Previous demonstrations and research are evident that the tannins and flavonoids are phenolic compounds and responsible for antioxidant properties of many plants [4]. In the present experiment, all plant extract contain flavonoid and tannin  and all the plants extract showing antioxidant property , this nature may be due to tannins and flavonoids. The result of all plant extract may be correlating with their antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical [33].

Antioxidants are drugs used for different diseases like aging, alzheimer’s diseases and many other diseases due to oxidation in human body. Antioxidants are responsible for scavenging of free radicals from body. The free radical scavenging property may be one of the mechanisms by which these plant parts are effective in their ethno-pharmacological uses against different ailments. Further studies, like extraction in different solvents, comprising of thorough phytochemical investigations of the used plants and evaluation for anti-oxidant activity using other models (e.g. various biochemical assays, both ex vivo and in vivo) are essential to characterize them as biological antioxidants.

5. Conclusion

Withania somnifera and Oxalis corniculata are two potential plants having strong antioxidant activity. In future they may be good source of antioxidant agent and may be useful for human being.

ETHICAL APPROVAL

 “All authors hereby declare that all experiments have been examined and approved by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki.”

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research project was financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, People’s Republic of Bangladesh.

Competing interests

Authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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Welcome to the research group of Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck in Marburg. Cornelia M. Keck is a pharmacist and obtained her PhD in 2006 from the Freie Universität (FU) in Berlin. In 2009 she was appointed as Adjunct Professor for Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Nanotechnology at the University Putra Malaysia (UPM) and in 2011 she obtained her Venia legendi (Habilitation) at the Freie Universität Berlin and was appointed as a Professor for Pharmacology and Pharmaceutics at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern. Since 2016 she is Professor of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics at the Philipps-Universität Marburg. Her field of research is the development and characterization of innovative nanocarriers for improved delivery of poorly soluble actives for healthcare and cosmetics. Prof. Keck is executive board member of the German Association of Nanotechnology (Deutscher Verband Nanotechnologie), Vize-chairman of the unit „Dermocosmetics“ at the German Society of Dermopharmacy, active member in many pharmaceutical societies and member of the BfR Committee for Cosmetics at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).

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