ROCK MASS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM IN TERMS OF PRACTICAL TUNNELING
Ahmet ÖZBEK
Department of Geological Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey. ozbekaderen@gmail.com
Keywords:
Abstract

Nowadays, infrastructure investments are accelerating; construction methods and techniques are rapidly developing and diversifying, similarly tunneling activities are also developing remarkably. Tunneling (the most common definition of underground space creation work); should be perceived not only as a whole of practical applications used to create a void in the desired geometry just under a topographic obstacle like a mountain and/or hillside, but also as a whole of other theoretical processes that have evolved up to this practical process and are constantly developed during this practical process.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
Year:2016
Volume:1
First Page:3
Last Page:4
Publisher Id:Bib-ID: 2609655.1:1.2016
Article History:
Received:December 17, 2016
Accepted:December 23, 2016
Collection year:2016
First Published:December 29, 2016

Nowadays, infrastructure investments are accelerating; construction methods and techniques are rapidly developing and diversifying, similarly tunneling activities are also developing remarkably. Tunneling (the most common definition of underground space creation work); should be perceived not only as a whole of practical applications used to create a void in the desired geometry just under a topographic obstacle like a mountain and/or hillside, but also as a whole of other theoretical processes that have evolved up to this practical process and are constantly developed during this practical process.

Rock mass classification is one of the most important of these theoretical processes. It is one of the most important criteria used both in the tunnel's design and tender stage, and construction phase. Although rock mass classification systems are seen as systems of theoretical information emerging as a result of practical needs, they have the most intensive use as a part of everyday work in tunneling practice. The rock mass classification systems are the basement of many tunneling applications such as an excavation systems and methods of tunnels, selection of support elements and their application, preparation of contracts, deduction of costs, construction of payments, etc.

The experience of the technical staff involved in the selection of the project location, the projecting stage and the excavation work in selecting these methods, which have different advantages and disadvantages according to each other, play a decisive role for the applicability, cost and security of the project. Since every method developed for determining rock mass properties has characteristics originally developed in the country and the project, it is a fact that when applied in a different project, the same methods do not always give the same yield and result.

The basic condition for the modeling of the tunneled geological environments, the discovery of the geomechanical behaviors and parameters of different geological environments and the consequent tunnel design is a good field research work. However, even if quality of the research work of the area to be constructed is considered to be at the highest level, all the parameters and factors that affect an underground construction and conditions can not be fully elucidated. In this case, an appearance of uncertainty situation should be considered as a preliminary acceptance during the process of making the final project as a result of both the field research and the associated geological and geomechanical modeling and design processes. This uncertainty situations needs to be addressed through a risk analysis and it is necessary to determine at what rates which risks can arise. The distribution of these risks between the employer and the contractor will play an important role both in reducing costs and in reducing technical and legal problems that may arise during and after construction.

It is necessary to determine the settlements on the floor surface, monitoring of horizontal and vertical displacements, anchor loads, bending of tunnel cover, possible swells in tunnel base, loose zone expansion in tunnel, measurement of tangential and radial stresses in the tunnel, water pressure on the coating, inclination measurements and explosion related vibrations during tunneling activities. Information’s on the construction stage are required for correct interpretation of the different measurement data. That information’s are used for estimation of real rock conditions, determination of rock class, excavation rate and excavation method, monitoring of temporary support, placement order and time of deformation measuring instruments, monitoring of additional ground movements, observation of tunnel mirror status and extraordinary events.

There are many rock mass classification systems that are widely used in the world, and new systems are emerging as existing systems are watched and developed in each experience light. However, in terms of tunneling practice, rock mass classification systems are seen as "result numbers" or "graphics for support selection" and their use in this way leads to problems during tunnel construction. Large costs are being spent to solve these problems and rock mass classification systems are held responsible for these negative results. Thus, all other influences such as time, macro-scale geology, knowledge of measuring technician and evaluator, psychological impact, use of existing equipment, environment etc. should be taken into consideration in practical use of rock mass classification systems.


© 2016 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license. You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. Under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. No additional restrictions You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits
Editor in Chief
Angela Calia (Ph.D)
Senior Researcher, National Research Council (CNR) Institute of Archaeological Heritage. Monument and Sites (IBAM) University Campus Prov.le Lecce - Monteroni 73100 Lecce Italy

Bibliography

Prof. Dr. Angela Calia Ph.D is Senior Researcher, National Research Council (CNR) Institute of Archaeological Heritage. Monument and Sites (IBAM) University Campus Prov.le Lecce - Monteroni 73100 Lecce Italy. Her research interest include Geology, Geochemistry, Environment, Thin Films and Nanotechnology, Mineralogy, Engineering Geology, Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage and Petrophysics. Prof. Calia has recently completed the research project entitled “NDT evaluation of historic masonries structures” and “Microscopic techniques and multi-analytical approach for the knowledge and conservation of materials and artifacts of the Cultural Heritage”. 

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Abbreviation: Adv Geosci
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/25205978 
Frequency: Annual
Current Volume: 2 (2017)
Next volume: December, 2018 (Volume 3)
Back volumes: 1-2
Starting year: 2016
Nature: Online
Submission: Online
Language: English

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