CURRENT APPROACHES IN THE RESEARCH OF DIMENSION STONES: FROM QUARRY TO HERITAGE
Luís Manuel Oliveira Sousa
Luís Manuel Oliveira Sousa, Departamento de GeologiaEscola de Ciências da Vida e do Ambiente Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal. Tel: +351 259350279, Fax: +351 259350480
Keywords: Dimension stones, Fracturing, Physical-mechanical properties, Durability
Abstract

Humans use stones since ever. All the great monuments made over time are some way related with stones. The importance of stones increases every year with the creation of new materials and new applications. Stone related activities are important for some countries. In 2015 the international market of stone products generated a flux of 78 millions of tons with a value of 26 billions € . Aesthetic characteristics determine the choice among the available stone varieties, however others factors must be considered during the three phases of the stone processing cycle: exploitation, transformation and application. These three phases are conditioned by several factors which delimit the scientific investigation in the dimension stone field. The most important factors are fracturing, physical-mechanical properties and durability.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
Year:2017
Volume:2
First Page:1
Last Page:3
Publisher Id:..
Article History:
Received:February 2, 2017
Accepted:March 3, 2017
Collection year:2017
First Published:March 9, 2017

Humans use stones since ever. All the great monuments made over time are some way related with stones. The importance of stones increases every year with the creation of new materials and new applications. Stone related activities are important for some countries. In 2015 the international market of stone products generated a flux of 78 millions of tons with a value of 26 billions € [1].

Aesthetic characteristics determine the choice among the available stone varieties (Fig. 1), however others factors must be considered during the three phases of the stone processing cycle: exploitation, transformation and application [2]. These three phases are conditioned by several factors which delimit the scientific investigation in the dimension stone field. The most important factors are fracturing, physical-mechanical properties and durability.

Quarries must be able to provide blocks with the appropriate size in order to maximize the further processing (Fig. 1). Local fracturing plays a major role in the quarry assessment since small variations in the pattern and/or joint density can significantly reduce the quarry production. The choice of the best surveying method is fundamental for the assessment of the block geometry with acceptable quality [3]. Random joints, lateral and in-deep variation of the degree of jointing, and the sometimes invisible subhorizontal joints, are some sources of error when the degree of jointing is estimated based on incorrect joint surveying [2,4]. During a campaign of fracturing survey all these factors must be taken into account to get the correct deposit characterization.

Figure 1. Some of the factors with an important role in stone dimension in the industry.

Natural stones are used in different applications and under wide environmental conditions, therefore their physical-mechanical properties must be in agreement with known international standards [5]. These international standards can be different according the use of the stone and even with the country, but they usually include the assessment of the fundamental properties, such as bulk density, porosity and uniaxial compressive strength [6,7]. Some problems, as changes in color, loss gloss and bowing were referred in weathered granites [2,4] and a particular caution is required when such stones are used. Stone durability is assessed trough performing ageing tests. These tests are implement to know the stone behaviour under a specific environmental condition or even to assess the efficacy of a protective treatment. In spite of the idea of endlessness of the stones, under the wrong combination the life span can be drastically reduced [8].

Heritage issues have an increasing importance though to the pronounced degradation of some stone monuments. The assessment of the behaviour of the stone after centuries exposed to the environmental conditions and anthropic aggressions highlights the importance of the petrophysic and geomechanical researches in order to avoid or mitigate the deterioration [9-11]. There are many examples of rapid deterioration when the stone does not meet the physical-mechanical standards, the stone mineralogy was not considered, or the building process was deficient [12].

Current stone researches play an important role in the dimension stone industry. In the past the aesthetics and the block size determined the practice in dimension stone exploration (Fig. 1), but nowadays several branches are included, such as environment, safety, machinery, geology, geomechanics, petrophysics and engineering geology [13-20]. All the players, from the extraction in quarries to the different utilizations, are now more conscious about the complexity of the processes related with the stone.

 

References

1.       IMM. Stone Sector 2016. Annual Report and Prospects for the International Stone Trade. Internazionale Marmi e Macchine Carrara, 2016. http://www.stat.immcarrara.com/uk/STAT/stone-sector/stone-sector-intro.asp

2.       Sousa LMO, Oliveira AS, Alves IMC. Influence of fracture system on the exploitation of building stones: the case of the Mondim de Basto granite (north Portugal). Environmental Earth Sciences. 2016; 75:39. DOI 10.1007/s12665-015-4824-6.

3.       Yarahmadi R, Bagherpour R, Sousa LMO, Taherian G. How to Determine the Appropriate Methods for Identifying the Geometry of In Situ Rock Blocks in Dimension Stones. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2015, 74(9):6779-6790. DOI 10.1007/s12665-015-4672-4.

4.       Sousa L, Barabasch J, Stein KJ, Siegesmund S. Characterization and quality assessment of granitic building stone deposits: a case study of two different Portuguese granites. Engineering Geology. 2017; in press.

5.       Selonen O, Ehlers C, Luodes H, Harma P. Exploration methods for granitic natural stones – geological and topographical aspects from case studies in Finland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland. 2014; 86:5–22.

6.       Mustafa S, Khan MA, Khan MR, Sousa LMO, Hameed F, Mughal MS, Niaz A. Building stone evaluation—A case study of the sub-Himalayas, Muzaffarabad region, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Engineering Geology. 2016; 209:56–69. Doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2016.05.007

7.       Freire-Lista DM, Fort R,Varas-Muriel MJ. Freeze-thaw fracturing in building granites. Cold Regions Science and Technology. 2015; 113:40-51. Doi: 101016/jcoldregions201501008

8.       Steiger M, Charola E, Sterflinger K. Weathering and deterioration. In Siegesmund S, Snethlage R (eds), Stone in Architecture - Properties, Durability. 2011; 227-316. Fourth Edition, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

9.       Vázquez P, Acuña M, Benavente D, Gibeaux S, Navarro I, Gomez-Heras M. Evolution of surface properties of ornamental granitoids exposed to high temperatures. Construction and Building Materials. 2016; 104:263–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.12.051

10.    López-Arce P, Fort R, Gómez-Heras M, Pérez-Monserrat E, Varas-Muriel MJ. Preservation strategies for avoidance of salt crystallisation in El Paular Monastery cloister, Madrid, Spain. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2011; 63:1487–1509. Doi: 10.1007/s12665-010-0733-x

11.    García-Talegón J, Iñigo A., Vicente-Palacios V. A laboratory simulation of desalting on calcareous building stone with wet sepiolite. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2016; 75:925. DOI 10.1007/s12665-016-5647-9

12.    Panova EG, Vlasov DY, Luodes H. Evaluation of the durability of granite in architectural Monuments. Geological Survey of Finland. 2014; Report of Investigation 214.

13.    Careddu N, Lanceni G. The sawing of granite blocks with gang-saw: strong points of the traditional technology. Marmomacchine. 2015; Sept:12-25

14.    Pedreschi R. A feasibility study of post-tensioned stone for cladding. Construction and Building Materials. 2013; 43:225–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.02.008

15.    Bellopede R, Castelletto E, Schouenborg B, Marini P. Assessment of the European Standard for the determination of resistance of marble to thermal and moisture cycles: recommendations for improvements. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2016; 75:946. DOI 10.1007/s12665-016-5748-5

16.    Martínez-Garrido MI, Fort R. Experimental assessment of a wireless communications platform for the built and natural heritage. Measurement. 2013; 82:188–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2015.12.036

17.    Ioannidou D, Zerbi S, Habert G. When more is better e Comparative LCA of wall systems with stone. Building and Environment. 2014; 82:628-639. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.10.004

18.    Verma DV, Vacek PM, Tombe K, Finkelstein M, Branch B, Gibbs GW, Graham WG. Silica Exposure Assessment in a Mortality Study of Vermont Granite Workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 2011; 8(2):71-79. DOI: 10.1080/15459624.2011.543409

19.    Guillén J, Tejado JJ, Baeza A, Salas A, Muñoz-Muñoz JG. Environmental impact of a granite processing factory as source of naturally occurring radionuclides. Applied Geochemistry. 2014; 47:122–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.06.001

Dino GA, Passarella I, Ajmone-Marsan F. Quarry rehabilitation employing treated residual sludge from dimension stone working plant. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2015; 73:7157–7164. DOI 10.1007/s12665-014-3895-0


© 2016 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license. You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. Under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. No additional restrictions You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits
Editor in Chief
Angela Calia (Ph.D)
Senior Researcher, National Research Council (CNR) Institute of Archaeological Heritage. Monument and Sites (IBAM) University Campus Prov.le Lecce - Monteroni 73100 Lecce Italy

Bibliography

Prof. Dr. Angela Calia Ph.D is Senior Researcher, National Research Council (CNR) Institute of Archaeological Heritage. Monument and Sites (IBAM) University Campus Prov.le Lecce - Monteroni 73100 Lecce Italy. Her research interest include Geology, Geochemistry, Environment, Thin Films and Nanotechnology, Mineralogy, Engineering Geology, Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage and Petrophysics. Prof. Calia has recently completed the research project entitled “NDT evaluation of historic masonries structures” and “Microscopic techniques and multi-analytical approach for the knowledge and conservation of materials and artifacts of the Cultural Heritage”. 

Journal Highlights

Indexing
  1. AATA Online, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90049 USA.
  2. Cross Ref
  3. Index Copernicus
  4. Google Scholar
  5. MediaFinder 
  6. MediaFinder -  77,000+  Publications
  7. OCLC WorldCat 
  8. J-Gate

Subject & Scope
  • Ecology, 
  • Biostratigraphy, 
  • Geochemistry, 
  • Geochronology, 
  • Geophysics, 
  • Marine Geochemistry, 
  • Marine Geophysics, 
  • Marine Surveying, 
  • Oceanography, Palaeontology, 
  • Sedimentology, 
  • Spectral Geology, 
  • Ecological and Environmental Sciences, 
  • Environmental Geoscience, 
  • EarthSci Geology, 
  • Geology & Physical Geography, Environmental Sciences, 
  • ?Geo-Environmental Engineering and 
  • Geodesign.

Consortium Publisher is an online publisher that enjoys global presence with International Journals

Follow Us

©2009 - 2019 Consortium Publisher Canada

Contact Info

6252 Lisgar Dr Mississauga Ontario L5N7V2 Canada
+1 (647) 526-0885
office@consortiumpublisher.ca
http://www.consortiumpublisher.ca/