Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences


ISSN: 1925-7430
Short Key Title: Can J App Sci
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/19257430
Start Year: 2011

METHODS FOR THE PREPARATION OF RECIPES AND ITS USES FOR CURING DIFFERENT DISEASES REPORTED FROM DISTRICT BANNU
Rehman Ullah Khan, Sultan Mehmood Wazir, Saad Ullah Khan, Rafi Ullah
Department of Botany, University of Science & Technology Bannu, Pakistan.
Keywords: Preparation, Recipes, Curing, Diseases, Bannu.
Abstract

In the present study 47 recopies belonging to 44 genera, and 34 families were studied. Plant name, constituents, preparation method, frequency distribution and recipes multifunctional nature were given in methodical manner. The local population had good knowledge about the medicinal plant and appropriate time of collection. Younger generation is disregard about indigenous uses of different medicinal plants, but the old inhabitants still acquires knowledge about how to use the wild resources. The plants use for abdominal pain were Aloe vera, Chenopodium murale, Foeniculum vulgare, Lepidium sativaum, Portulaca oleraceae, Mentha longifolia, Menthe viridis, Papaver someniferum, Punica protopunica, Rumex hestatus, Thymus sarphylum and Verbescum thapsus. Some were used as tonic like Acacia modesta, Calotropis proceera, Olea ferruginea, Zathoxylum armatum, Melia azedarach, Tribulus terrestris, Vitex negundo, and Teucrium stocksianum, while other were used against diarhoea i.e Punica protopunica, Verbascum thapsus, Quercus incana, Plantago lanceolata, Pinus roxurghii, Papver somniferum, Myrtus cummunis and Mentha longifolia were commonly used plants. For body cooling Adiantum capallis veneris, Ajuga breteosa, Cichorium intybus, Portulaca oleraceae, Nasturtium officinale, Pistacia integerrima and Tribulus terrestris were frequently used. Similarly plants used as expectorant were Justacia adhatoda, Calotropis procera, Pinus roxburghii, and Zyziphus sativa, while plants used as antispasmodic were Justacia adhatoda, Berberis lycium and Datura stramonium, the plants used as jaundice were Berberis lycium, Cichorium intybus, Nasturtium officinale, Pistacia integerrima, and Teurium stocksianum, while Verbascum thapsus, Zizphus sativa, and Salvia moorcrotiana were used as emollient. The vegetation of the area was found to be under high biotic pressure such as deforestation and overgrazing. Ruthless collection of medicinal plants had threatened their existence and more plants are becoming vulnerable due to the destruction of their habitat.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
Year:2014
Volume:4
First Page:51
Last Page:65
Publisher Id:CanJAppSci (2014 ). 4. 51-65
Article History:
Received:March 3, 2014
Accepted:April 5, 2014
Collection year:2014
First Published:April 15, 2014

INTRODUCTION

Life and diseases go together: where there is life, diseases are bound to exist. The traditional use of natural plants remedies provides potential indicators for biological activity [1]. Medicinal plants are used to cure various ailments such as gum of Accacia modesta is used as tonic, stimulant and demulcent. Root of Cichorium intybus is used in jaundice, leaves are used against typhoid. Decoction of leaves of Ajuga bracteosa is used in Jaundice, hypertension and sore throat. The fruit of Ficus palmata is used in urinary bladder problems, constipation and piles [2]. Evaluation of the effect of plant preparation on the electrical activity of the organs to the digestive system in Rabbits suffering from sever hepatitis. Tea prescribed for treating jaundice and tea with antihepatotoxic effect was prepared according to Tibetan recipes. After the administration of the tea, electrical activity of the stomach, liver and gall bladder returned to normal more rapidly than it did in control animals [3]. Some recently collected traditional recipes and pharmaceutical potential of medicinal plants in Nigeria were investigated. That showed medicinal plants as sources of anti-diabetic agents, anti-hypertensive drugs and anti-fertility agents etc. [4].   An approach in China towards the treatment of Bovin mastitis by using the decoction of herbs, Radix spp, Suckle flower, Honey and Dandelion was also made [5]. Worked was done on the decoction of 12 herbs used against Kidney disease in animals and humans in Thailand [6]. [7] Used herbal tea for the treatment of Colic. This was given for 1 week, 33 healthy infants. 2 to 8 weeks old with colic, this was given along with extract of Charmomile, Liquorice, and Fennel. The colic improvement was significant in Israel. Unani herbal medicinal recipe preparation, Sharbat-e-Bezoori moatadil and Safoof-e-Khash Khash   has been practiced for antihypertension in India Alighar University [8]. The present study includes information about the usage of important medicinal plants as recipes locally by peoples of District Bannu.

MATERIAL AND METHOD:

In the present study local inhabitants were interviewed to know about the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used for different diseases. Regular field survey was conducted to the different fields of research area. The Methodology used comprises of the following steps.

1.       Collection of plants.

2.       2. Identification of plants.

3.       3. Preservation of plants.

4.       4. Collection of information or data of these plants.

5.       5. Mode of preparation of recipes. 6. Compression.

 

The investigative visits were made during September 2013. In case of herbs the whole plants, while in case of shrubs and trees shoot tips were collected, preserved and identified according to the flora of Pakistan [9,10,11,12]. For the preparation of recipes (Traditional use) and their utilization the locale people (particularly aged people) were interviewed according to the designed data collection form.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In the present study 47 recipes were study,  botanical name, family name, local name, part used, flowering season and local uses for each recipes (plant) were given in tabulated form. The recipes were classified on the bases of there uses given in the Tables 1-8. Frequency distribution of common diseases cured by recipes and Frequency distribution of diseases cured by recipes is given in table 9 and 10. Belford (1994) studied Chinese herbal medicine treatment of chronic hepatitis [13]. Similar type of research in Australia was conducted by Mckeon (1994) on a diabetic man of 66 years, who had an ulcer on his foot, not cured by Orthodox treatment, was successfully treated with herbal preparation containing Tilia europiea, Ichinacea angustifolia and Trifolium pretense etc [14]. A survey was made by Rao and  Arshad  (1996 ), interviewed the local inhabitants for herbal remedies of worm infestation in Kashmir Himalaya, and found 12 plants used to treat worm infection [15].

Detail of methods for the preparation of recipes and its uses

Recipe # 1

Plant:                     Acacia modesta Wall

Constituents:         Acacia Gum + wheat Flour + Ghee + Sugar

                              Acacia Gum + Egg yolk

Method of preparation:

1. The gum of Acacia is collected from the stem, dried, cursed and mixed with flour. It roasted in the ghee; added a small amount of sugar and then eaten. 2. Several inhabitants used it as a bandage for fracture of bones, by crushing the dried gum of the plant and then mix it with egg yolk.

Recipe # 2

Plant:                     Adiantum capallisveneris 

Constituent:         Adiantum +Rice +Carrot +Sugar

Method of preparation:

1.The whole Adiantum plant is boiled in water, kept cool down and then this water is use for toothache, headache, eye wash and cough at night. 2. Some community boil Adiantum plant in water, add one tea spoon of sugar, one two pieces of carrot, and rice (which is separately boiled) and then is eaten two or three times a day, which is considered to be a useful recipe for curing disease like measles.

Recipe # 3

Plant:                     Ajuga bracteosa wall

Constituents:         Ajuga plant

Method of preparation:

First the leaves are clean by removal of dust particles and other impurities. Then these leaves are boiled in water to prepare a decoction, which is placed exposed throughout the night and take orally at morning before breakfast. This recipe is used for the removal of abdominal pain, fever, body cooling, as a blood purifier and tonic. It is also useful in diabetes, hepatitis and wound of chest.

Recipe # 4

Plant:                     Allium cepa

Constituents:          Allium Juice + Honey

Method of preparation:

1.A piece of Allium cepa bulb is kept upon the body part to cure stinging by wasp. The onion bulb is smelled to avoid vomiting, eaten fresh or cooked as tonic. 

2. Juice is extracted from fresh plant of Allium cepa by grinded, which is mixed up with three tea spoon of honey. The mixture is then heated till the whole water of the mixture evaporates and only the honey remains. This recipe is very successful for diabetes, cholera and flue.

Recipe # 5

Plant:                     Allium sativum

Constituents:          Allium Fruits +Dalda Ghee

Method of preparation:

1.The fresh raw fruit is eaten before breakfast at morning along with simple water to diminish the high BP (blood pressure). 2. Juice is extracted by grinding the fruit of Allium and used for earache, body pain, and to reduce high BP. Similarly the fruit of the plant is fried in Dalda Ghee and applying on body or drinking is useful for reliving the body pain.

Recipe # 6

Plant:                     Aloe vera Mill

Constituents:         Aloe Leaf + Salt

Method of preparation:

The leaf of Aloe is washed with water, longitudinally sectioned and then placed on pussy wounds, which are cured efficiently. Similarly its leaf is taken then both epidermises are separately, small amount of salt is placed on this gummy substance and eaten .it is very useful for abdominal pane and other diseases of abdominal. This recipe is also useful for all diseases of liver, abdominal pain and diseases of liver.

Recipe # 7

Plant:                     Berberis lyceum Royl

Constituents:         Barberis Root + Sugar

                             Barberis Fruit + Sugar

Method of preparation:

The root is grind into powder. Then this powder is placed on wound which cured very soon. Similarly the fruit is placed in water and small amount of sugar is added to it and shacked well. Then the solution is filtered and the filtrate is eaten which is very useful for blood purification. The root is grand after drying to form powder which is put into the water along with a small amount of sugar and drink before sleeping which is effective for jaundice, sore throat and body pain.

Recipe # 8

Plant:                Calotropis procera wild

Constituents    Calotropis Flower + Black Peppermint

                        Calotropis Seed    + Red Chilli + Opium

Method of preparation:

The leaves of Calotropis are heated and make its bandage upon ulcer, which is very useful.

The flowers of Calotropis are dried and then grind along with black peppermint this powder which is locally called ‘Talay’ is eaten in small amount daily which is useful for paralysis. Its latex is used as purgative. In small amount its seeds along with red chilli and opium are also used for cholera.

Recipes # 9

Plant:                 Cannabis sativa

Constituents:    Cannabis sativa + Vitis venifera + Elataria cradamomum Juglans Fruit + Prunus amygdalus Fruit + Papaver Seeds + Milk

Method of preparation:

The Cannabis leaves and branches are boiled in water, then the boiled specimen is placed in a fine cloth remaining juice is extracted finally a decoction is formed. Other constituents like Vitis venifera + Elataria cradamomum Juglans Fruit + Prunus amygdalus Fruit + Papaver Seeds are grind, mix up with the decoction and then milk is also added. Now the local recipe is ready to drink which is a narcotic recipe.

Recipe # 10

Plant:                    Cichorium intybus L.

Constituents:          Cichorium Roots

Method of preparation:

 Cichorium intybus L. roots are cleaned and boiled in water. The solution is filtered with fine cloth. The filtrate is kept for the whole night and is drink before breakfast early in the morning. It is useful to control gas trouble, jaundice, body cooling, body refreshing, and stomach disorders.

Recipe # 11

 Plant:                    Chenopodium murale

Constituents:         Chenopodium whole Plant

                             Chenopodium Seeds + Honey

Method of preparation:

After cleaning the whole Plant of Chenopodium is dried and grinded into fine powder. This powder is liquefied in water and given to children to drink, to relive the abdominal pain. Some people mix the seed with honey and use before taking any type of food which is considered to be very successful against removal of worms.

Recipe # 12

Plant:                     Clematis graveolens

Constituents:         Clematis Leaves and Flower

Method of preparation:

Locally in villages of the area, the fresh flowers and leaves are grind into fine powder which is used as bandages on any part of the body for discharging internal pus, curing the internal wound and curing body pain. It swells the spot, which bursts and release the pus. We have done it practically in our home, which is useful for internal wound and curing body pain.

Recipe # 13

Plant:                    Datura stramonium

Constituents:         Datura Flower

                              Datura Seeds

Method of preparation:

The flower are collected, dried and then grinded into powder which is taken with water before breakfast for asthma. Juice of the fruit is useful for curing falling of hair and dandruff. Similarly two seeds of Datura’s are eaten daily for epilepsy (MERGII). Their

Recipe # 14

Plant:                     Dodonea viscose L.Tacq.

Constituents:         Dodonea Leaves + Brassica Oil

Method of preparation:

1. The leaves of Dodonea are burnt and then it’s ash is mixed with Brassica oil to form a poultice which is useful for animal’s mouth infection and for external wound. 2. Sometime ash of Dodonia is mixed with grind leaves of Nicotiana tubacum and water is added to it, a resinous substance is prepared called snuff or “NASWAR”, which is used as narcotic. The recipes also used for external wound.

Recipe # 15

Plant:                     Eucalyptus lanceolatus

Constituents:        Eucalyptus Leaves and Bark

Method of preparation:

The leaves and bark of Eucalyptus are collected and boiled in water. This is filter and the decoction is used for wound of chest and toothache. The fruits are boiled in green tea and are taken which is useful as anti-vomiting.

Recipe # 16

Plant                      Ficus carica

Constituents:        Ficus Latex

                             Ficus Latex + Milk

Method of preparation:

1.Latex is collected from young branch or leaf which is placed on the body parts having hidden prickle; that easily drawn out from the body. 2. Some people manufacture crude mixture by adding the latex and fruits into the milk then cooled it and used for constipation.

Recipe # 17

Plant:                      Foeniculum vulgare Mill

Constituents:          Foeniculum Fruits + Sugar + Thymus

Method of preparation:

1.The dried fruit is grind and sugar is mixed with it. This recipe is eaten after foods for indigestion and expulsion of gases. 2. Similarly the dried fruit of Foeniculum and Thymus are grind into powder and then eaten with water after eating food which useful for abdominal pain.

Recipe # 18

Plant:                     Indigofera gerardiana

Constituents:         Indigofera Roots

Method of preparation:

The cleaned and dried roots are boiled in water and cooled down, filtered and this filtrate is used against the abdominal pain.

Recipe # 19

Plant:                      Justacia adhatoda Ness

Constituents:          Justacia Leaves

Method of preparation:

The leave are collected, cleaned and then boiled in water. It is filtered then the decoction is drunk early in the morning before breakfast. Some people also drink it before dinner. It is very effective in stomachache, controlling sugar level in the body.

Recipe # 20

Plant:                     Juglan regia Linn

Constituents:         Juglan Bark

Method of preparation:

The bark of the stem is collected dried and then moistened in water and used for lips cracks and toothache from time to time. Water from the boiled bark is used as gargle by some peoples of the area which is very effective for sore throat. Several peoples boil the unripe fruit pericarp in water, allowed to cools down and used as wormicide at night before sleeping.

Recipe # 21

Plants:                   Lepidium sativum Linn

Constituents:         Lepidium Fruits + Milk + Desi Ghee

Method of preparation:

The fruits of lepidium are put into the milk then dasi ghee is added to it. Now it is boiled, partially cooled and is drunk for curing abdominal pain and cholera.

Recipe #22

Plant:                      Marrubium anisodon C.Koch  Salimgaya

Constituents:          Marrubium Leaves+ Wheat Flour+ Salt

Method of preparation:

The leaves of Marrubium are collected, cleaned from dust and other impurities, grinded and mixed with wheat flour. Then water and small amount of salt is added and heated till to become partly cooked. Then it is banded on pussy wound in partly warm conditions. It is very useful to relieve the pain of wound and to release pus from it.

Recipe # 23

Plant:                  Melia azedarach L.

Constituents:     Melia Juice+ Brassica Oil

                         Melia Juice + Sugar

                        Melia Fruits + Wheat Flour

Method of preparation:

The leaves Melia are grind to obtain its juice. This juice is mixed with Brassica oil and used as antilice.

Similarly this is mixed with water and sugar and then is used to expel the worms. This is eaten before meal. The fruit is grind and mix in wheat flour which is given to cattle as tonic.

Recipe # 24

Plant:                  Mentha longifolia L

Constituents:     Mentha Leaves + Fennel

                        Mentha Roots

Method of preparation:

1. Clean and dry leaves of Mentha are grinded into powders and are used for curing abdominal pain. 2. Grinded powder of Mentha leaves along with fennel and orange peel are boiled in water. After cooling down one to two teaspoon of the decoction is given to children mostly three times a day to cure fever, abdominal pain, dysentery and diarrhea, body cooling and good vision of eyes. Roots of Mentha plant are boiled in water to form a decoction which is used to increase milk of cattle and also to cure fever.

Recipe # 25

Plant:                     Mentha viridis Syn

Constituents:         Mentha Leaves

Method of preparation:

Clean and dry leaves of Mentha are boiled in water to form decoction which is allowed to cools down and then drunk for stomach trouble, diarrhea, headache and also used as anti-vomiting. Its extraction in hot water is given to a woman who reduces dysmenorrheal. Its leaves are also chewed.

Recipe # 26

Plant:                      Myratus communis

Constituents:          Myratus Leaves + Gur

                              Myratus Seeds + Sugar

Method of preparation:

The leaves of Myratus are collected, boiled in water along with “Gur”. This decoction is then filtered through a thinner cloth and is drunk. It is useful for stomachache. The seed of Myratus are grind with sugar and the locally called “THALAY” is given to children with for curing diarrhea.

Recipe # 27

Plant:                     Nasturtium officinale

Constituents:         Nasturtium whole Plant + Salt

Method of preparation:

The whole collected plant of Nasturtium is washed and cooked in water add small quantity of salt, allowed to cool then eaten for  medicinal purposes like curing gas trouble, hepatitis and body cooling. The plant is also dried and grinded into powder then roasted, which is used for chest pain, stomachache and as vermifuge.

Recipe # 28

Plant:                     Olea ferruginea Royle

Constituents:         Olea leaves and Olea oil

Method of preparation:

The freshly flocked leaves of Olea are grind with the help of teeth in mouth and the extracted juice is drunk for sore throat. I have used it several times myself, and found it effective. The oil of Olea is used as analgesic in arthritis and other pain of body parts.

Recipe # 29

Plant:                       Portulaca oleracea L

Constituents:           Portulaca Juice

 Method of preparation:

Green colour juice is extracted by grinding fresh branches and leaves of Protulaca and is given to children for curing their abdominal pain. According to my grandmother it had been given to me several times during my childhood. Leaves poultice and seeds decoction are used respectively for external inflammation and cooling demulcent.

Recipe #30

Plant:                      Papaver   somniferum Linn

Constituents:          Papaver + Mentha + Zafran + Peppermint   Seeds

 Method of preparation:

Locally Papaver fruit is boiled in tea and is drink at night time for severe cough.  Opium along with other constituents such as Mentha + Zafran + Peppermint Seeds re used against diarrhoea, dysentery, cough and flu. 

Recipe #31

Plant:                    Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

Constituents:         Leaves and Bark + Honey

Method of preparation:

Juice extracted from grinding fresh bark and leaves which is used early in the morning and at night to cure toothache, sore throat and lungs infection. The juice along with honey is used for liver disease. Dried powder of bark and leaves are dissolved in cold water and drink for constipation, ulcer and diarrhea. To releases pus from wounds its resin is applied externally as bandage.

Recipe #32

Plant :                 Pinus wallichina A.B.jacks

Constituents:      Pinus Resin + Butter

                          Pinus Branch + Butter

Method of preparation:

The resin is collected from direct cuttings of stem and branches or from heating of cuttings of stem and branches. Resin mixed with butter is used before meal as wermifuge are applied externally for itching.

Recipe #33

Plant:                     Pistacia integerrima J.

Constituents:        Pistacia leaves + water

                             Pistacia Fruits + Mustared Oil

Method of preparation:

After washing the leaves are boiled in water to form decoction which is drunk before breakfast for hepatitis and body cooling. Fruits roasted in mustered oil are used as expectorant.   

Recipe #34

Plant:                      Plantago lanceolata L.

Constituents:          Plantago Leaves and Seeds

Method of preparation:

1.Wash and clean the leaves from any type of impurities, make it sun dry then crushed it into fine powder and apply externally three times a day on wounds. 2.Similarly after washing, the seeds are taken with water three times a day for diarrhea and dysentery.

Recipe #35

Plant:                     Plectranthus regosus Wall.ex. Bth.

Constituents:         Plectranthus Leaves

Method of preparation:

1. Leaves are cleaned and boiled in water, allowed to cools down and then filtered. After keeping the filtratrate for the whole night it is used before breakfast for sore throat. 2. Some people extract juice from its leaves, mix with water, shake well and given to children for cough.

Recipe #36

Plant:                     Prunus persica Batch.

Constituents:         Prunus fruit + Ginger +Honey

Method of preparation:

1.The fruit is dried then crushed into powder which is mixed with powdered ginger and honey and are used for diabetes and body cooling. 2. Similarly its resin is boiled, cooled down and used for deafness and earache. 

Recipe #37

Plant:                     Punica protopunica L.

Constituents:         Punica Seeds and Roots

Method of preparation:

The peel of Punica is dried, crushed into powder, added milk and small amount of sugar and then a cup of tea is taken before breakfast for avoid urinary tract infection, burning of urine, controlling of extraction of urine in children during sleeping, Decoction of seeds are used for abdominal pain, flu, cold, headache and for body cooling while that of roots is used for dysentery, diarrhea and abdominal pain.

Recipe #38

Plant:                    Quercus incana Roxb

Constituents:       Quercus Bark + Wheat flour

                             Quercus Fruit + Wheat flour

Method of preparation:

The bark is dried, grind, mix, with flour and water is placed externally on wound. The bark is also kept in water then this water then this used as hair color to hairs. Similarly its fruits posses endosperm, which is grind, mix with flour and water and then eaten for dysentery and diarrhea.

Recipe #39

Plant:                   Rosa mochata Hook.f.

Constituents:        Rosa Flower and Leaves

Method of preparation:

After boiling the leaves and flowers an extract is prepared which is used before eating the meal for curing skin diseases and blood purification. 

Recipe # 40

Plant:                     Rumix hastatus D.don

Constituents:         Rumix Leaves + Wheat flour

                              Rumix Roots + Gur

Method of preparation:

Collected leaves are grinded into powder, mix with flour, and slightly heated then the mixture is used as bandage on pussy wounds.  Fresh leaves juice is used for cooling purposes. After cleaning the roots of Rumix, add Gur to the filtrate and is given for abdominal pain to both human and cattle.

Recipe # 41

Plant:                     Salvia moorcroftia Wall

Constituents:         Salvia Seeds + Milk

                              Salvia Leaves

Method of preparation:

Fully ripen seeds were collected, then dried, grind and the powder is used with water or milk to relieve abdominal pain especially in children. The seeds are also eaten with water, about half tea spoon early in the morning before breakfast which reduces the burning of urine. The whole leaves are heated and to relive pain it is used as bandage on painful parts of the body.

Recipe # 42

Plant:                     Solenum suratenes  Brum

Constituents:         Solenum Fruits and Leaves

                              Solenum Root + Water

Method of preparation:

The dried yellow ripe fruit are grinded into powder which is taken with water before breakfast for Diabetes. After cleaning the roots are boiled, filtered and drunk before breakfast for kidney stone killer.

Recipe # 43

Plant:                      Thymus serphyllum

Constituents:          Thymus Seed + Gur

                               Thymus Seed + Sugar

Method of preparation:

The seed are dried, grind then eaten with Gur for curing the abdominal pain. The seed are little hidden in the ground surface and cooked by making fire above it, then grind and eaten with water is useful not only for abdominal pain but also for curing internal wounds. A decoction is formed from boiling the seeds small amount of sugar is added then it is used for curing abdominal pain and raising body temperature particularly in Females.

Recipe # 44

Plant:                       Terbulus terrestris Linn.

Constituents:          Terbulus Fruits

Method of preparation:

Grinded powder of dry fruit is mixed with water and used as a tonic, for body cooling and dorsal pain twice or three times a day. It is very useful in case of. It is also used and as tonic.

Recipe # 45

Plant:                    Teucrim stocksianum

Constituents:         Whole plant except Roots

Method of preparation:

The branches are flocked, made clean from dust particle and other impurities and kept expose to sky for the whole night, the decoction is filtered and then used as a tonic, body cooling and for Hepatitis. 

Recipe # 46

Plant:                       Viola serpans Wall ex roxb.

Constituents:           Viola the Whole plant + Sugar

Method of preparation:

The collected plant is cleaned from dust; decoction is prepared by boiling it in water. After filtration it is poured into a clean bottle then one cup is drunk befog breakfast for asthma, cough and fever.

Recipe # 47

Plant:                    Vitex negundo

Constituents:         Vitex Leaves and Roots

 

Fig: 1 Frequency distribution of common diseases cured by recipes

Table # 1 TTHE PLANTS USE FOR ABDOMINAL PAIN

Botanical Name

 Family Name

                part used

Flowering Season

Local uses

Ajuga bracteosa Wall

Lamiaceae

Leave

March-April

Abdominal pain, fever, body cooling, blood purification and tonic.

Aloe vera

Liliaceae

Leave

April. may

Diseases of abdomen & liver.

Chenopodium murale

Chenopodiaceae

Whole-plant

July-Aug

Abdominal pain, worm expulsion.

Foeniculum vulgare

Apeaceae

Fruit

May-June

Expulsion of gases, indigestion, abdominal pain.

Lepidium sativaum L.

Brassicaceae

Fruit

March-April

Abdominal pain.

Portulaca oleraceae L.

Portulacaceae

Whole-plant

April-May

Abdominal pain, external inflammation, cooling demulcent.

Mentha longifolia

Lamiaceae

Whole-plant

May-June

Fever, diarrhea, dysentery, abdominal pain, anti vomiting.

Menthe viridis

Lamiaceae

  Leave

May-June

Abdominal pain, regulation of monthly bleeding in women, anti vomiting.

Papaver someniferum

Papaveraceae

Latex-Seed  

May-June

Cough, flu, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dysentery.

Punica protopunica L.

Punicaceae

Seed

April-May

Urinery tracts infection, headache, abdominal pain, cold.

Rumex hestatus D.

Polygonaceae

Whole-Plant

August- September

Healing of wounds and abdominal pain.

Thymus sarphylum

Thymeleaceae

Fruit

Late Spring - Early Fall

Abdominal pain, raising body temperature.

Verbescum thapsus L.

Scrophulariaceae

Leaves, seeds

June-August

Abdominal pain

Table # 2     PLANTS USED AS TONIC

Botanical Name

Family Name

P           Part use

Flowering Season

Local uses

Acacia modesta Wall

Mimosaceae

Gum

April-May

External warts, as tonic

Calotropis proceera L.

Asclepidaceae

Latex-Leave-Root

May-June

Ulcer, cholera.

Olea ferruginea Royle

Oleaceae

Leave-Fruit

August-Sep.

Sore throat.

Zathoxylum armatum

Rutaceae

Leave-Fruit

August-Sep.

as tonic

Melia azedarachal

Meliaceae

Bark-leave-Fruit-Flower

Many-June

Anti-lice, tonic and as vermifuge.

Tribulus terrestris

Zygophylaceae

Fruit

January-Feb

Dorsal pain, body cooling and tonic.

Vitex negundo

Verbenaceae

Leaves-Root

April-May

Toothache, discharging of pus, tonic.

Teucrium stocksianum

Lamiaceae

Whole Plant Except Root

April-May

Body cooling, hepatitis and as tonic.

Table # 3     THE PLANTS USED FOR DIARHOEA

Botanical Name

Family Name

Part use

Flowering Season

Local uses

Punica protopunica L.

Punicaceae

Fruit-Seed bark of Root & Stem

April-May.

Diarrhoea, dysentery, urinary diseases.

Verbascum thapsus L.

Scrophulariaceae

Leaves, seeds

June-August

Diarrhoea. asthma, seeds are fish poisonous

Quercus incana Roxb

Fagaceae

 

April-May

Diarrhoea, dysentery, wound and as hair colour.

Plantago lanceolata

Plantaginaceae

Leave-Seed

 

 

April-May

Stopping bleeding, dysentery and diarrhoea.

Pinus roxurghii

Pinaceae

Resin-Tips Branch

January-Feb

Lungs infections, diarrhea, constipation and wounds.

Papver somniferum

Papveraceae

Latex-Seed

May-June

Diarrhea

Myrtus cummunis

Myrtaceae

Leaves-Seed

Sep.-Oct.

Stomach pain and diarrhea.

Mentha longifolia

Laminaceae

Whole plant

May-June

Diarrhea

 

 

Table # 4    THE PLANTS USED FOR BODY COOLING

Botanical Name

Family

Part Use

Fl. Season

Local uses

Adiantum capallis veneris

Pteridaceae

Whole plant

 

 

January-Feb

Sexual debility, fever, backache, purification of blood and body cooling.

Ajuga breteosa Wall

Lamiaceae

Leave

March-April

Body cooling

Cichorium intybus L.

Asteraceae

Seed-Whole plant

March-April

Jaundice and body cooling.

Portulaca oleraceae L.

Portulacaceae

Whole Plant

April-May

Body cooling

Nasturtium officinale

Brassicaceae

Whole Plant

May-June

 

Body cooling and jaundice.

Pistacia integerrima J.

Anacardiaceae

Barke-Fruit-Leave

January-Feb

Body cooling, jaundice and expectorant

Tribulus terrestris L.

Zygophylacea

Fruit

January-Feb

Body cooling

Table # 5    THE PLANTS USED AS EXPECTORANT

Botanical Name

Family

Part use

Flowering Season

Local uses

Justacia adhatoda Ness

Acanthaceae

Leaves

March-April

Stomach pain and regulate sugar level.

Calotropis procera L.

Asclepiadaceae

Latex-leave-Root

May-June

good tonic, expectorant, anthelmintic

Pinus roxburghii Sarg

Pinaceae

Bark-resin-leave-seed

January-Feb

stomachic, burning of body, ulceration, constipation

Zyziphus sativa Gaertn

Rhamnacea

Barriers

April-May

Diabetes, digestive

Table # 6    THE PLANTS USED AS ANTISPASMODIC

Botanical Name

Family

Part use

Flowering Season

Local uses

Justacia adhatoda Ness

Acanthaceae

leaves

March-April

Antispasmodic

Berberis lycium Royle

Berberidaceae

Whole parts

May-June

Blood purification, sore throat and jaundice.

Datura stramonium L.

Solanaceae

Leaves-seeds & Flower

July-Aug.

Asthma, dandruff and falling of hair.

Table # 7     THE PLANTS USED AS EMOLLIENT

Botanical Name

Family

Part use

Flowering Season

Local uses

Verbascum thapsus L.

Sclapholariacea

Leaves, seeds

June-August

asthma, Diarrhoea

seeds are fish poisonous

Zizphus sativa

Rhamaceae

Barriers

April-May

Diabetes, digestive

Salvia moorcrotiana wall

Lamiaceae

Leaves-Seed

January-Feb

Abdominal pain, body pain, burning of urine.

Table # 8   THE PLANTS USED AS JAUNDICE

Botanical Name

Family

Part use

Flowering Season

Berberis lycium Royle

Berberidaceae

Whole parts

May-June

Cichorium intybus L.

Asteraceae

Whole plants

March-June

Nasturtium officinale

Brassicaceae

Whole plant

May-June

Pistacia integerrima J.

Anacardiaceae

Barke-Fruit-Leave

March-April

Teurium stocksianum

Lamiaceae

Whole plant except Root

January-Feb

Table: 9 Frequency distribution of total Diseases cured by recipes

Abbreviation

Frequency

%age

Total

Abbreviation

Frequency

%age

Total

Ab. pain

13

9.56

136

Menses

2

1.47

137

Bo. pain

8

5.88

136

Ulcer

2

1.47

137

Tonic

8

5.88

136

Antilice

1

0.74

137

Bo .cool

7

5.15

136

Temp incres

1

0.74

137

Cough

5

3.68

136

Uri.Bur.

1

0.74

137

Dysentery

5

3.68

136

Urin.sleep.

1

0.74

137

Jaundice.

5

3.68

136

Constip.

1

0.74

137

Sor.thro.

5

3.68

136

Chestsor.

1

0.74

137

Tooth.

5

3.68

136

Clotting

1

0.74

137

Anti vomatic

4

2.94

136

Dandruff

1

0.74

137

Stomachic

4

2.94

137

Diarrhoea

1

0.74

137

Diabetes

4

2.94

137

Deafness

1

0.74

137

Anthalm.

4

2.94

137

Expul.gass

1

0.74

137

Wou. heal.

4

2.94

137

Expacto.

1

0.74

137

Cholera

3

2.21

137

Epilepsy

1

0.74

137

Fever

3

2.21

137

Bandages

1

0.74

137

Headache

3

2.21

137

Fall.hair

1

0.74

137

Measles

3

2.21

137

Hair color

1

0.74

137

Blood puri.

3

2.21

137

Digestion

1

0.74

137

Asthma

2

1.47

137

Kidnystone

1

0.74

137

Blood pre.

2

1.47

137

Lever

1

0.74

137

Earache

2

1.47

137

Lung infic.

1

0.74

137

Flue

2

1.47

137

Paralysis

1

0.74

137

Inter.pain

2

1.47

137

Purgative

1

0.74

137

Norcotic

2

1.47

137

Prick.rem.

1

0.74

137

Ch.Woun.

1

0.74

137

Swelling

1

0.74

137

Abbreviations: Ab.pain –Abdominol pain, Bo.pain- Body pain, Bo. Cool-Body cool, Sor.thro.-Sorethroat, Tooth.-Toothache, Anthalm.-Anthalmentic, Wou.heal.-Woundhealing, Blood puri.-Bloodpurification, Bloodpre-Bloodpressure, Inter.pain-Internalpain, Ch.Woun.-Chestwound,Uri.Bur.- Urine Burning, Urin.sleep.-Urinesleeping, Constip.-Constipation, Ches.sor-Chestsore,Expl.gass.-Expultion of gass,Expacto.-Expactorent, Lung inf.-Lung infectio, Prick.rem.-Prickle removal.

Table: 10 Frequency distribution of common diseases cured by recipes

Abbreviation

Frequency

%age

Total

Abbreviation

Frequency

%age

Total

Ab.pain

13

13.98

93

Stomachic

4

4.30

93

Bo.pain

8

8.60

93

Diabetes

4

4.30

93

Tonic

8

8.60

93

Anthalm.

4

4.30

93

Bo.cool

7

7.53

93

Wou.heal.

4

4.30

93

Jaundice

5

5.38

93

Bloo. puri.

3

3.23

93

Cough

5

5.38

93

Asthma

2

2.15

93

Dysentry

5

5.38

93

Norcotic

2

2.15

93

Sor.thr.

5

5.38