Plants are used as the
most important remedy in many of diseased conditions and also as food stuff for
human and they remain persistent to give the new beneficial remedies to mankind
till day. Since the previous four decades, there have been astonishingly sound
revivals of concern in medicinal plants study (Basu and
Chaudhuri 1991). In the study of medicinal plants, this new world
wide interest has led to the categorization of new molecules and segregation of
active chemical compounds from the plants of curative nature
(Faizi, Khan et al.
2008). The resurgence in
drugs derived from plants is mainly due to the wide spread confidence that medicines
obtained from plants are secure and more reliable than artificially prepared
medicines which are costly and also have many effects which are toxic (Shikov,
Pozharitskaya et al. 2008). This recent global
tendency for the use of drugs derived from plants, therefore, produced an
emergent need for precise and timely information about the uses, properties,
effectiveness, safety and worth of plant products of medicinal interest(Sucher and
granatum is a fruit of deciduous shrub or little
trees of 5-8 meters length. It is indigenous to Iran (Kumar et al.,
1990) and from there it extends to Asian areas such as Caucasus, the Himalayas,
and North India and in Kerala (Janic et
al., 2008). This fruit is grown in the regions of Northern Hemisphere from
September to February (LaRue & James, 1980) and in the Southern regions it is cultivated
during months of March to May. It is commonly
known as Anaar in native language and belongs to family Lythraceae. The
benefits of Pomegranate fruit are also explained in many religious books like “The
book of Exudos”, “Homeric Hymn” and the “Holy Quran” (Surah Al Inam and Al
History of pomegranate
Along with olives,
figs and grapes, pomegranates are among the first plants to have been
cultivated by man. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is considered one of
the oldest known edible fruit about which the Holy Quran, the Bible, the Jewish
Torah, and the Babylonian Talmud has told as ‘Food of Gods’ that is symbolic of
plentyness, fertility and prosperity(Aviram,
Dornfeld et al. 2000; Seeram,
Henning et al. 2006). This distinctive
fruit pomegranate is the important member of two species belonging to family
Punicaceae. The genus name Punica, was given with name of the Roman Carthage,
the place where the best pomegranate fruits were grown. In French this fruit is
named as grenade, in Spanish as Granada (derived from the ancient city of
Granada), and literally translates to seeded ("granatus") apple
("ponium") (Jurenka 2008). The name of the edible part of pomegranate,
in ancient Greek mythology, is the “fruit of the dead” which consists of
significant amounts of saccharides, polyphenols, and available in Hades for its
residents. The Babylonians named the kernels as an agent of renewal, the
Persians as conferring strength on the battle field and for ancient Chinese
alchemical adepts; the bright red liquid was mythopoetically regarded as a
“soul concentrate”, a substitute to human blood, consulting to permanency and
immortality (Dahham, Ali
et al. 2010). Since ancient times,
the pomegranate has been used extensively in the folk medicine of many cultures
as a “healing food” in order to eliminate parasites, as an anthelmintic and
antipyretic, vermifuge and to treat aphtae, acidosis, ulcers, diarrhea,
dysentery, microbial infections, hemorrhage, and respiratory pathologies. It
also features prominently in the ceremonies, art, and mythology of the
Egyptians and Greeks, and was the personal emblem of Maximilian, the Holy Roman
Gonzalez-Sarrias et al. 2010).
is monogenic family with two species in world. One is endemic to Socotra (Punica
protopunica) with pink flowers and
having smaller less sweetened fruits. Other species, Punica granatum is
distributed throughout Tropical and Sub tropical region of the world.
Methods of extraction
the preparation of pomegranate fruit extract, pomegranates are selected,
washed, frozen and stored in reservoir containers. The fruits are then crushed,
squeezed, grounded and blended with electronic blender and finally dried in an
oven adjusted at 40°C for time of 24 hours, then the fine powder is sieved with
the help of 24-mesh and stored at room temperature for further extraction(Qu, Pan et al. 2010) then these fruits
were further extracted by standard analytical methods. 100ml of the total
extract of the fruit gives about 16% vitamin C of an adult’s daily need. Also
it consists of potassium, Vitamin B5 and polyphenols which are tannins and
Lansky et al. 1999).
For thousands of
years, many cultures have believed that pomegranate have beneficiary effects on
health and fertility. The recent interest for this fruit is not only because of
the pleasant taste, but also due to the scientific evidences that suggest
therapeutic activity such as anti-atherogenic, antiparasitic, antimicrobial,
and antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory
effects. Pomegranate has high anti oxidative (Ismail et al., 2012) and anticancer activities (Khan et al.,
2013). Metabolites of Pomegranate fruit extract
ellagitannins are particularly localized in colon, prostate gland and mice
intestinal tissues (Seeram,
Aronson et al. 2007). In 2011, 32 clinical
trials were suggested to be conduct with National health institute to observe
the effects of pomegranate extract or juice against prevention of various
diseases. The various uses of pomegranate fruit
as an antiparasitic agent, ulcers and in healing of aphtae and blood tonic,
diarrhea are also enlisted in Ayurvedic medicines(Jurenka 2008).
against which pomegranate extract is useful for prevention are prostate cancer,
lymphoma, prostatic hyperplasia, oxidative rhinovirus infection and common
cold, Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDs)(Lee and
Watson 1998), cardiovascular
protection and atherosclerosis. It is also used as an ophthalmic ointment, oral
hygiene and weight loss soap. Pomegranate
(Punica granatum) and its fruit
extract which is most commonly consumed is specially associated with decreased
risk of various proliferative diseases such as prostate cancer, prostatic
hyperplasia and atherosclerosis in humans (Aviram, Dornfeld et al. 2000). It is also used in infant brain ischemia, male
infertility, stress in diabetic hemodialysis, diabetes(Saxena and
Vikram 2004), Alzheimer’s disease
In this review, we thoroughly reviewed and discussed
different constituents of Pomegranate
fruit and their effects (Pharmacological, physiological and toxicological). All
the claimed effects are based on previous researches, experimental data, and
reports collected from different sources.
Constituents of pomegranate fruit and its
Table 1: Phytochemicals present in pomegranate plant (Jurenka, 2008)
Anthocyanins; catechin, glucose; ascorbic acid; phenolics
such as ellagic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ), quercetin,
epigallocatechin gallate (EGCGrutin; mineral elements; aminoacids.
Pomegranate seed oil
Punicic acid; ellagic acid; fatty acids; sterols
Phenolic compounds like punicalagins, gallic acid,
catechin, EGCG, quercetin, rutin, anthocyanidins, other flavonoids
(Punicalagins and punicafolins) and flavones glycosides including
apigenin and luteolin
including Punicalagins and punicalin, numerous piperidine alkaloids
gallic acid, triterpenoids including Asiatic
and maslinic acid and other unidentified constituents.
The pomegranate fruit
is round, with stringy covering or rind, classically yellow, coated with light
or deep pink or rich red. The eatable part of the fruit, the arils can be
conserved as molasses or used for liquor, queue, jelly, plum, jam, juice,
vinegar, and can be an alternative to flavoring and coloring agent used in
beverages (Ozgen, Durgaç
et al. 2008; Al-Said,
Opara et al. 2009; Akbarpour,
Hemmati et al. 2010). During the last few
years, many attempts have been made to evaluate the different constituents of
pomegranate fruit, their isolation and their physiological, pharmacological and
toxicological properties. The
pomegranate tree can be divided into several anatomical compartments: seed,
juice, peel, leaf, flower and root bark, each of which is widely used in
therapeutic and food formulas, and cosmetics. Pomegranate is a good source of
tannins, dyes, and alkaloids(Khan 2009; Wang, Ding et al. 2010). Different
constituents of pomegranate fruit are as follows:
The edible fruit weighs about 5-1/2 ounces, 104 calories,
1.5g protein, 26.4g carbohydrate, 9mg vitamin C and 399mg potassium. Unlike the
red pomegranates, white pomegranate seeds are high with sugar content and have
low acidity levels. The chemical composition of the
pomegranate and its products depends on the cultivar, growing region, and
climate, the fruit’s stage of maturity, cultural practices and manufacturing
systems (Borochov-Neori, Judeinstein et al. 2009; Zarei, Azizi et al. 2011). Table shows the chemical composition of pomegranate fruit
and phytochemicals in pomegranate and its parts.
2: Values per 100 g of edible portions
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
Riboflavine (Vitamin B2)
Pomegranate fruit extracts/constituents
possesses huge biological activities such as antidiarrhoeal (Das, Mandal et al. 1999), anticarcinogenic(Malik, Afaq et al. 2005), antibacterial(Duman, Ozgen et al. 2009), antifungal(Dutta, Rahman et al. 1998), antiulcer (Gharzouli, Khennouf et al. 1999), antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging
capability (Festa, Aglitti et al. 2000), strengthening of the immune system(Lee, Kim et al. 2008), prevention of heart disease(Johanningsmeier and Harris 2011) and liver fibrosis(Thresiamma and Kuttan 1996), and inhibition of lipid peroxidation even at lower
concentrations than vitamin E (Rosenblat, Draganov et al. 2003). Most of these therapeutic activities are
because of the ‘phenolic compounds’
which include the acids like gallic, protocatechinunic, chlorogenic, caffeic,
ferulic and coumaric, as well as some other compounds including ‘hydrolysable tannins’ (such as
punicalin, pedunculagin, punicalagin, corilagin, casuarinin, punicacortein, granatin and ellagic acid),‘anthocyanins’ (delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin3-glucosides
and 3,5- diglucosides) and catechins (a phenolic compound by chemical nature) (Noda, Kaneyuki et al. 2002; Viuda-Martos, Fernández-López et al. 2010).
Polyphenols are one of the most
abundant groups in plant which have a high antioxidant activity. Phenolic
compounds are biologically active group of phytochemicals. They are classified
according to their chemical structure into flavonoids, phenolic acids,
coumarins, and tannins(Tapiero, Tew et al. 2002; Mennen, Walker et al. 2005). Because of its potent antioxidant activity, pomegranate is
considered one of the commonly used natural antioxidants.
extract is rich in hydrolysable tannins called ellagitannins(Singh,
Chidambara Murthy et al. 2002; Passamonti, Vrhovsek et al. 2003). These ellagitannins
are produced from binding of ellagic acid with carbohydrates. Punicalagins are
tannins with free radicals in experiments conducted in laboratory premises(Kulkarni,
Mahal et al. 2007).
Anthocyanins are the major and utmost
key group of ?avonoids existing in pomegranate arils, which acquired from the
juice. These colorants provide the fruit and juice its characteristic red color
(Afaq, Saleem et al. 2005).
There is a huge variety of anthocyanins found in pomegranate juice,
pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside
and delphinidin-3,5-di- glucoside(Jaiswal, DerMarderosian et al. 2010). The presence of hydroxylated groups in number, the nature
and the number of bonded sugars, aliphatic or aromatic carboxylates bonded to
these sugars in the structure and the position of these bonded molecules, are
the major differentiating elements for different anthocyanins (Kong, Chia et al. 2003).
The seeds of pomegranate are rich in
poly unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic acid, Oleic acid, palmitic acid
and other lipids punicic acids, stearic acid and linolenic acid (Schubert, Lansky et al. 1999). The citric acid and malic acid are major components of
juice while tartaric acid, succinic acid and oxalic acid are also present in
juice (Poyrazoglu, Gökmen et al. 2002). Phenolic acids are also present in juice which consists of
Caffeic acid, Chloroenic acid and fumalic acid (Amakura, Okada et al. 2000).
Other ingredients such as water-soluble vitamins, minerals
and sugars of pomegranates have been stated many times by various researchers
in past (Aviram, Dornfeld et al. 2000; Davidson, Maki et al. 2009;
Tezcan, Gültekin-Özgüven et al. 2009).
Peel bears almost half of the total weight of the fruit and it is a major
source of bioactive compounds for example minerals like potassium, nitrogen,
calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium some proanthocyanidin compounds,
flavonoids, ellagitannins (ETs) and different phenolic compounds (Li, Guo et al. 2006; Mirdehghan and Rahemi 2007), as well as polysaccharides which are stated by(Jahfar, Vijayan et al. 2003). Fruit seeds are good source of lipids; pomegranate seed
oil consists of 12% to 20% of its total weight. The seeds also have the
phytoestrogen coumestrol, and the sex steroid, estrone , pectin, crude fibers,
vitamins, minerals ,proteins, sugars ,isoflavones (mainly genistein) and polyphenols(Syed, Afaq et al. 2007).
or acute inflammation is a useful host response to tissue damage but it may
also cause immune-associated diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease,
rheumatoid arthritis, and cancers(Simmons and Buckley 2005). Pomegranate has been shown to inhibit inflammation by
different mechanisms. Cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipooxygenase (LOX), which are
key enzymes in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and
leukotrienes (important inflammatory mediators), respectively, are inhibited by
Pomegranate(SHAMS ARDEKANI MOHAMMAD, HAJIMAHMOODI
et al. 2011). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have more
side effects on cardiovascular function by inhibiting COX and suppressing
(prostacyclin) in comparison to Pomegranate (Grosser, Fries et al. 2006).
Destruction to the skin arises from the consequence of the
regular aging process and damage is aggravated in excessive exposure of skin to
sun (photo aging)(Lavker 1995). The major reason of serious adverse effects to human skin
is extended exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiations causing skin cancer,
premature skin aging, sunburn, oxidative stress and immune-suppression(Widmer, Ziaja et al. 2006). Some of the scientists stated that pomegranate peel
extract (and to a lesser extent, both the fermented juice and seed cake
extracts) stimulates the type I procollagen synthesis and inhibits matrix
metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1; interstitial collagenase) production by dermal
fibroblasts, and has no effect on growth of keratinocytes. Whereas pomegranate
seed oil has a stimulatory effect on keratinocytes proliferation in monolayer
culture. These results indicate that pomegranate aqueous extract (especially of
pomegranate peel) enhances the regeneration of dermis, and seed oil of
pomegranate enhances the regeneration of epidermis(Aslam, Lansky et al. 2006).
per WHO statistics, there are more than 300 million out of 1000 million
overweight adults which are obese (Mensah, Mendis et al. 2004). Cerda & others(Cerdá, Cerón et al. 2003; Cerdá, Llorach et al. 2003) studied the effects of pomegranate extract (6%
Punicalagins) in female rats feeding them to a diet containing 20% of the
extract for 37 days. The extract intake was about 4800 mg punicalagin/kg/d. A
sufficient decline in body weight of the animals was observed in the rats.
1. Cardiovascular effects
It is assumed that antioxidants possess valuable effects on
cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases by counteracting the reactive
oxygen species (ROS) which is
majorly produced because of heavy work out and increased metabolic processes.
Pomegranate pure juice consumption before and after a moderate exercise have
significant effect on lipid per oxidation, blood pressure, and urinary
2. Antioxidant properties
Destruction because of oxidation is one of the major reasons
in the deterioration of quality in food products. This oxidative deterioration
starts with an exposure of heat, ionizing radiation, light, metal ions, and
metallo-protein catalysts to a particular enzyme lypoxygenase, (Daker, Abdullah et al. 2008). This oxidative deterioration leads to a huge loss of
nutritional value of food because of the damage to vitamins and essential fatty
acids in food. The apparent qualities of the food are also widely changed
including taste, texture and color of food which decreases its shelf life and
ultimately rejection by consumers(Fernández-López, Viuda-Martos et al. 2007). Polyphenolic antioxidants are found richly in pomegranate(Çam, Hisil et al. 2009). The Phenolic compounds present in pomegranate, including
punicalagin isomers, EA derivatives, and anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin
and pelargonidin 3- glucosides, and 3, 5-diglucosides) are well known for their
properties to reduce free radicals and to prevent lipid oxidation in vitro(Noda, Kaneyuki et al. 2002). However, some scientists recommended that punicalagin
originating from the peels is an important phytochemical subsidizing to the
total antioxidant ability of pomegranate juice, whereas anthocyanins has only a
minor role in this measure(Tzulker, Glazer et al. 2007).
3. Antiviral properties
Pomegranate has been used in phage ampli?cation assays as a
viricidal agent(De Siqueira, Dodd et al. 2006). Four different types of polyphenols in pomegranate
extracts Ellagic Acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, and punicalagin have been
evaluated by many researchers and they found punicalagin as an anti-in?uenza
component(Haidari, Ali et al. 2009), it inhibits the replication of the viral RNA, reduces
agglutination of chicken RBC’s by the virus, and had viricidal effects in
chicken. Further investigations showed that replication of human in?uenza A/
Hong Kong (H3N2) in vitro is also inhibited. This effect has also been
associated with other ?avonoid compounds found in pomegranate (Kwak, Jeon et al. 2005).
4. Antimicrobial Properties
of the most practiced schemes to control the growth of microorganisms is by
means of use of the substances that have antimicrobial activity for example,
growth reducers, inhibitors, or even inactivators. To maintain the safety and
quality of food, preservatives are used as first choice(Viuda-Martos, Ruiz-Navajas et al. 2008). Health-related problems caused by deteriorated food, foul
smell, disagreeable tastes, textural problems, or changes in color, which are
basically caused by the enzymatic or metabolic systems of the principal
microorganisms in food lead to the variation in its quality and beneficiary
effect. Natural antimicrobials having microbicidal or static effect sufficiently
increase the useful life of foods and its prevention form deterioration (Feng and Zheng 2007).
Pomegranate has significant inhibitory effect on various
pathogenic bacteria especially gram positive bacteria which are methicillin
resistant and methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus(Braga, Leite et al. 2005), Streptococcus haemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Proteus bacillus,
Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Listeria
monocytogenes, Candida albicans, Yersinia enterolytica(Al-Zoreky 2009). Tannins, ellagitannins and flavonoids are responsible for
antibacterial activities of pomegranate extracts (Al-Zoreky 2009).
possesses inhibitory effects on different type of cancers such as prostate (Rettig, Heber et al. 2008), breast (Sturgeon and Ronnenberg 2010), colon (Kasimsetty, Bialonska et al. 2010), and lung
cancers(Khan, Afaq et al. 2007). The
components of many fruits which do not have nutritional value are known to have
potential as anticancer by means of having chemoprotective agents. Some of the
general mechanism of action proposed for such compounds are (Tanaka and Sugie 2007); (1) Induction
of phase II (detoxi?cation) enzymes; (2) inhibition of phenotypic expressions
of pre neoplastic and neoplastic cells; (3) Blockage of carcinogen formation or
inhibition of the phase I enzymes; (4) Intonation of homeostatic hormones; (5)
Apoptosis induction; (6) Destruction of DNA-reactive agents; (7) Suppression of
hyper-cell proliferation induced by carcinogens; and (8) tumor angiogenesis
depression. For finding the effectiveness of pomegranate fruit and its
constituents many studies have been conducted endowed with a very high
antioxidant activity as an anti-invasive, antiproliferative, and pro-apoptotic
agent in various cancer cell lines and animal models (Afaq, Saleem et al. 2005; Lansky and Newman 2007; Hamad and Al-Momene
6. Antidiabetic Properties
Most common metabolic disease in the world is diabetes.
According to the World Health Org., it is the 3rd-most prevalent disease after
cardiovascular and oncological disorders. The Intl. Diabetes Federation stated
that 194 million people had diabetes in 2003, which will increase to 333
million by 2025(Sicree, Shaw et al. 2003). One of the strategies to control diabetes mellitus is
through diet. Numerous studies have described that pomegranate fruits and
derivatives of its constituents can play an essential part in dietotherapy as
antidiabetic agent(Katz, Newman et al. 2007; Bagri, Ali et al. 2009).
7. Antidiarrheal properties
The antidiarrheal effect of pomegranate
fruit peel extract in rats was assessed by administering an oral dose of 400
mg/kg and concluded from their experiments that extract decreases the number of
defecations and the weight of feces in comparison with the control (Olapour, Mousavi et al. 2009). A similar type of study by Qnais and his colleagues in 2007
demonstrated the antidiarrheal effects of the aqueous extract of pomegranate
peels in rats. The results showed that this extract possess a
concentration-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous movement of the ileum and
attenuated acetylcholine-induced contractions.
tumor response after anti-cancer treatment apoptosis is a useful marker which
is basically a process of programmed cell death. Pomegranate extracts gives
punic acid (an omega-5 long chain poly unsaturated fatty acid derived from
Pomegranate), has shown to induce apoptosis in both an estrogen sensitive cell
line developed from MDA-MB-231
cells (MDA-ERalpha7) and an
estrogen non sensitive breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231)
through PKC (Protein kinase C) signaling pathway and lipid peroxidation (Grossmann, Mizuno et al. 2010). Destruction
in cellular mitochondrial membrane has also been observed(Grossmann, Mizuno et al. 2010). The
relationship between pomegranate-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer
cells (LAPC4) and the IGF/IGFBP system has also been studied (Koyama, Cobb et al. 2010). Pomegranate
(a highly potent Pomegranate extract prepared from skin and arils, minus the
seeds) and IGFBP-3 have been shown to synergistically excite the apoptosis.
cell cycle is a series of events, which consists of four distinct phases; G1
phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase), and M
phase (mitosis) and because of this cycle cell duplicates. For the verification
of processes of each phase multiple checkpoints have been identified which
confirms whether the phase has been accurately completed before progression
into the next phase or not. Certain types of alterations may result in the
cease of cell duplication. Ellagitannins, derived from Pomegranate juice, and
their metabolites, urolithins exhibit dose and time-dependent decreases in cell
proliferation and clonogenic efficiency of HT- 29 cells through cell cycle
arrest in the G0/G1 and G2/M stages of the cell cycle followed by induction of
apoptosis(Khan 2009). Previous studies have suggested several mechanisms of cell
cycle arrest by pomegranate juice, such as modulation of cell signaling
molecules in the cell cycle machinery. Pomegranate treatment induced a
dose-dependent arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle which was assessed
by DNA cell cycle analysis in the lung cancer cell line (A549)(Khan, Afaq et al. 2007). Another study showed that pre-treatment of normal human
epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) with pomegranate increases the cell cycle arrest
induced by UVA in the G1 phase of the cell cycle(Syed, Malik et al. 2006).
on important enzymes
are proteins that catalyze biochemical/chemical reactions. Pomegranate has been
shown to inhibit different enzymes including phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (that
catalytically hydrolyzes the bond releasing arachidonic acid and
lysophospholipids) (Lansky et al.,
2005), cyclooxygenase (COX), lipooxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450(Kimura, Ito et al. 2010) (Kimura et al.,
2010) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)(Bachrach 2004) (Bachrach et al.,
2004) which plays a role in the urea cycle and catalyzes the decarboxylation of
ornithine to polyamines such as putrescine. Polyamines standardize the growth
processes and enhance the growth of cancer cells (Hora, Maydew et al. 2003). Meanwhile Carbonic anhydrase (CA) that catalyzes the
hydration of carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate (HCO3-) is also inhibited(Khalifah 2003). Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors such as Pomegranate have
been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo(Pastorekova, Parkkila et al. 2004). Aromatase is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the
biosynthesis of estrogens and catalyzes the formation of estrone and estradiol,
which is inhibited by Pomegranate (Rahimi
et al., 2012). One of the possible
mechanisms in which Pomegranate can inhibit breast cancer is its inhibitory
effect on aromatase and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes (17ß-HSDs),
as well as its antiestrogenic activity. Furthermore, ellagitannins (ET) and
urolithin B (UB), which are found in relatively high quantities in Pomegranate,
have been shown to most effectively inhibit aromatase activity in a live cell
assay(Adams, Zhang et al. 2010). Serine protease is another enzyme which is inhibited by
Pomegranate. Serine proteases (SP) are enzymes in which one of the amino acids
in the active site is serine. Protease plays an essential role in modulating
the turnover of extracellular matrix (EC), which provides morphological support
for cell growth and differentiation(Vu and Werb 2000). Punicalagin and ellagic acid, from Pomegranate, have
presented lesser inhibitory effects on alpha-secretase (TACE) and further
serine proteases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase, which indicates
that they are relatively particular inhibitors of beta-secretase (BACE1)(Kwak, Jeon et al. 2005). Other studies have shown that catechin and epicatechin
(epigallocatechin-3-gallate) (Iwasaki, Ito et al. 2009), which are present in Pomegranate can inhibit SP.
developmental biology, cellular differentiation is a process by which a less
specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. Studies have shown that
Pomegranate stimulates the differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and
also alters the role of these cells(Kim and Choi 2009). Pomegranate seed oil has been found to stimulate
keratinocytes proliferation in monolayer culture and has no effect on the
function of fibroblasts thus results as a facilitator for skin repair and
promoting regeneration of dermis as well as epidermis (Aslam, Lansky et al. 2006).
this review, we gathered most of the published studies on Pomegranate without
date elimination. However, attempts were made to explain the new data. Iran is
considered to be the primary origin of Pomegranate. Pomegranate juice, fruit,
and extracts have been used widely in the folk medicine of ancient cultures for
various medicinal properties. Pomegranate has proven to possess phytochemicals
that hold pharmacological and toxicological properties. The
information presented in this review article which was obtained from in
vitro, in vivo and clinical trial investigations has shown some of
the pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms and properties of Pomegranate.
Existence of these pharmacological and
toxicological mechanisms and properties and interference of several signaling
pathways suggest that Pomegranate can be widely consumed as a potential therapy
for prevention and management of several types of diseases including
hypertension, leukemia, hyperlipidemia, colon cancer, prostate cancer, breast
cancer, lung cancer, skin cancer, and anti-atherosclerosis, myocardial
ischemia, myocardial perfusion, diabetes, oral inflammation, infection,
anti-erectile dysfunction, male infertility, neonatal hypoxia, ischemic brain
injury, Alzheimer’s disease and obesity reducer.
This study was conducted with the encouragement and support
of Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zafarullah, Pro Rector, University of Central Punjab,
Adams, L. S., Y. Zhang, et al. (2010). "Pomegranate ellagitannin-derived
compounds exhibit antiproliferative and antiaromatase activity in breast cancer
cells in vitro." Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(1): 108-113.
Afaq, F., M. Saleem, et al. (2005). "Anthocyanin- and hydrolyzable
tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways and
inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD-1 mice." Int J Cancer 113(3): 423-433.
Akbarpour, V., K. Hemmati, et al. (2010). "Multivariate analysis of
physical and chemical characteristics in some pomegranate (Punica granatum)
cultivars of Iran." International journal of food, agriculture and
environment 8(1): 244-248.
Al-Said, F., L. Opara, et al. (2009). "Physico-chemical and textural
quality attributes of pomegranate cultivars (< i> Punica
granatum</i> L.) grown in the Sultanate of Oman." Journal of food
engineering 90(1): 129-134.
Al-Zoreky, N. (2009). "Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (<
i> Punica granatum</i> L.) fruit peels." International journal of
food microbiology 134(3): 244-248.
Amakura, Y., M. Okada, et al. (2000). "High-performance liquid
chromatographic determination with photodiode array detection of ellagic acid
in fresh and processed fruits." Journal of Chromatography A 896(1): 87-93.
Aslam, M. N., E. P. Lansky, et al. (2006). "Pomegranate as a
cosmeceutical source: pomegranate fractions promote proliferation and
procollagen synthesis and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-1 production in
human skin cells." J Ethnopharmacol 103(3): 311-318.
Aviram, M., L. Dornfeld, et al. (2000). "Pomegranate juice
consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and
platelet aggregation: studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein
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