Regenerative medicine is based on stem cells, which have the ability to
differentiate into special type of body cells, and hence, they were proven
clinically successful in organ transplantation, as well as in the functional
treatment of several diseases (1). Nanotechnology, which is the science
depending on particles of dimensions below 1 micrometer has gained considerable
interest in the field of regenerative medicine, especially when nanoparticles
are constructed from biodegradable organic and inorganic biomaterials (1).
In order to direct the spreading and adhesion of stem cells,
nanopatterning has emerged as a cellular environment mimicking technique in
order to control aspects related to differentiation of stem cells by virtue of
their molecular interaction (2,3). It has been demonstrated that cellular
differentiation can primarily be affected by changes in the geometry,
dimensions and orientation of the nanopatterns (4). Several technologies were
reported in the literature to create such nanopatterns, such as Dip-pen
nanolithography, nanografting, polymer phase separation, metal anodization,
capillary molding, preparation of nanofibrous scaffolds, and three dimensional
Despite the existing and anticipated successes related to the application
of nanopatterning technology in stem cell therapy, there are still many aspects
that need to be addressed before clinical translation of this technology, such
as the full identification of the molecular mechanisms of cell-substrate and
cell-cell interactions, and the verification of whether the nanopatterned
surface would allow full functioning of the stem cells or not. Moreover, the
safety of these nanostructures needs to be fully explored at the molecular
level before we can see further futuristic advances for these technologies,
which requires an extensive research input from multidisciplinary teams in the
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YH, Chung JH. Designing nanotopographical density of extracellular matrix for
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