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Humans use stones since ever. All the great monuments made over time are some way related with stones. The importance of stones increases every year with the creation of new materials and new applications. Stone related activities are important for some countries. In 2015 the international market of stone products generated a flux of 78 millions of tons with a value of 26 billions € . Aesthetic characteristics determine the choice among the available stone varieties, however others factors must be considered during the three phases of the stone processing cycle: exploitation, transformation and application. These three phases are conditioned by several factors which delimit the scientific investigation in the dimension stone field. The most important factors are fracturing, physical-mechanical properties and durability.

The historical retrospective and the current state of knowledge on the various branches of geology evince an evolution from a pre-scientific geology (15th - 18th century) to a concise and multidisciplinary sciences based on vigorous concepts and application of specific principles and methods that developed since the 19th century. In about one century, geoscientist have used several tools (physics, chemistry, biology, chronology, mathematics and informatics) to understand the geology and the evolution of the dynamic Earth planet and how its system works in a broader context encompassing the atmosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere and how it evolved to its current state. A revolution in the earth sciences started in 1960s with the emergence of the theory of plate tectonics which have been acknowledged and accepted few years later. In fact, all geologic processes on local, regional and global scales are directly or indirectly influenced by plate tectonics; this latter is also blamed for slowly (and instantaneous) evolving environmental change and for many catastrophes over time (earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis and landslide. The achieved developments resulted in a broad understanding of the Earth planet and led to expand the basis of geosciences education and then, open doors to the exploration and the extraction of major’s natural resources.

Historic - artistic and architectural - archaeological heritage is a great resource for the current societies, with a progressive broadening to include a variety of cultural items (i.e. minor buildings of historical towns, buildings of the industrial archaeology, etc.), which have significance in testifying the complex of aspects relating to the people civilizations, cultures and activities. Knowledge and preservation of the Cultural Heritage are considered fundamental issues in the life of modern communities and they may be effectively supported by the use of modern technologies and science.

Geomatics, also known as geospatial technology or geomatics engineering, refers to the set of disciplines that deal with gathering, interpreting, processing, modelling, storing and delivering spatial information. Geomatics, among the others, includes tools and techniques referable to land surveying and positioning (i.e. topography, Global Navigation Satellite Systems - GNSS), satellite, aerial and ground-based remote sensing (i.e. digital photogrammetry, LIght Detection And Ranging - LIDAR, Remotely Piloted Aircraft System - RPAS), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), digital mapping and geostatistics. In recent decades, thanks to technological advances, these methods have been increasingly spread and used for the study and management of geological hazard and risk.1-5 This is because they provide innovative tools in supporting cartographic products and in the analysis and the quantitative measurement of geological processes located in inaccessible areas at different scales.6-7 Additionally, Geomatics provides spatial data for informing decision making processes and ensuring compliance with regulations. Recent advances in the information technology industry have provided the capability to obtain accurate, fully geo-referenced, three-dimensional datasets that can be used to characterize in detail the structural and geological setting and the geomorphology of a study area.

Nowadays, infrastructure investments are accelerating; construction methods and techniques are rapidly developing and diversifying, similarly tunneling activities are also developing remarkably. Tunneling (the most common definition of underground space creation work); should be perceived not only as a whole of practical applications used to create a void in the desired geometry just under a topographic obstacle like a mountain and/or hillside, but also as a whole of other theoretical processes that have evolved up to this practical process and are constantly developed during this practical process.

In this 21st century we lived a controversy in the world of Earth Sciences. On the one hand, advances in computing allow us to simulate much of the phenomena that exist in nature, and we can also model remote places without accessing them. We have drones and satellites and advanced computing but it is still necessary to use the compass and scratch the rock with our geologist's hammer to capture the smallest details. There are very sophisticated analysis equipment but we cannot replace the human eye in the petrographic and geomechanical characterization. But what is the degree of precision of these computational approaches? To a certain extent the work of field data collection is being lost or the less relegated to a second position.

Editor in Chief
Angela Calia (Ph.D)
Senior Researcher, National Research Council (CNR) Institute of Archaeological Heritage. Monument and Sites (IBAM) University Campus Prov.le Lecce - Monteroni 73100 Lecce Italy

Bibliography

Prof. Dr. Angela Calia Ph.D is Senior Researcher, National Research Council (CNR) Institute of Archaeological Heritage. Monument and Sites (IBAM) University Campus Prov.le Lecce - Monteroni 73100 Lecce Italy. Her research interest include Geology, Geochemistry, Environment, Thin Films and Nanotechnology, Mineralogy, Engineering Geology, Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage and Petrophysics. Prof. Calia has recently completed the research project entitled “NDT evaluation of historic masonries structures” and “Microscopic techniques and multi-analytical approach for the knowledge and conservation of materials and artifacts of the Cultural Heritage”. 

Journal Highlights
Abbreviation: Adv Geosci
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/25205978 
Frequency: Annual
Current Volume: 2 (2017)
Next volume: December, 2018 (Volume 3)
Back volumes: 1-2
Starting year: 2016
Nature: Online
Submission: Online
Language: English
Browse Contents

Indexing
  1. AATA Online, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90049 USA.
  2. Cross Ref
  3. Index Copernicus
  4. Google Scholar
  5. MediaFinder 
  6. MediaFinder -  77,000+  Publications
  7. OCLC WorldCat 
  8. J-Gate

Subject & Scope
  • Ecology, 
  • Biostratigraphy, 
  • Geochemistry, 
  • Geochronology, 
  • Geophysics, 
  • Marine Geochemistry, 
  • Marine Geophysics, 
  • Marine Surveying, 
  • Oceanography, Palaeontology, 
  • Sedimentology, 
  • Spectral Geology, 
  • Ecological and Environmental Sciences, 
  • Environmental Geoscience, 
  • EarthSci Geology, 
  • Geology & Physical Geography, Environmental Sciences, 
  • ?Geo-Environmental Engineering and 
  • Geodesign.

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