Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences

ISSN: 1925-7430
Short Key Title: Can J App Sci
Start Year: 2011

Recent Publications
Research Report
Sidrah Andleeb, Eman Tahir, Omar Akhlaq Bhutta, Shahbaz Ahmad Khan, Saba Mazhar

Background: Drotaverine is an excellent anti-spasmodic and a vital drug for relieving spastic visceral pain. However, the incidence of hypotension and allergic skin reactions is a concern with drotaverin’es use. Aim: This study was intended to evaluate the risk of adverse effects with drotaverine in hospital patients. Method: It was a retrospective cross-sectional study for the total cases on drotaverine inj. for the year 2017. Data collection form was used. Results: 1 out of a total of 62 patients suffered hypotension after administration of drotaverine injection (0.016%). Patient suffering hypotension was on dimenhydrinate injection q8hrs. regularly. There was no case of allergic skin reaction with the use. Conclusion: Use of drotaverine is safe with due consideration to mild risk of hypotension. Regular use of hypotensive drugs should be watched for while using drotaverine.

The main purpose of the sheep production is to improve profitability of yield traits such as meat, milk and wool obtained per animal. In this respect, selection is a remarkable tool for achieving genetic improvement and attaining better qualified offspring as to the quantitative traits. In obtaining of superior offspring according to a quantitative trait like live weight, the conservation of indigenous genetic sources and the detection of the breed standards, animal breeders take into account indirect selection criteria with the help of high genetic correlation coefficients between live weight and morphological traits.

Original Research Article

Global warming and water availability, loss of biodiversity, impacts of climate changes on agriculture, environmental pollution, food security and safety and renewable energy are worldwide problems affecting agricultural sustainability. In this respect, food safety, climate change, system management and risk management are becoming hot topics in agriculture. Increasing productivity and creating economies of scale, intensive technology and renewable energy use, establishing regional agro-industrial ecologies of life cycle assessment, networking marketing and trade and reducing risk are some proposed solutions. International organizations have been focusing on national and international research projects in order to determine global problems in agricultural sustainability and to diversify proposed solutions. Unfortunately, databases of research projects in the world are not connected for data, data mining, and big data processing purposes yet. Moreover, basic research, applied research, and experimental development do not complement each other. Projects are funded by national scientific and technological research councils. Due to the fact that project final reports and results are mainly published in native languages, such material cannot be utilized for the benefit of global issues. The objective of this study is to examine final reports of some national projects results of Turkey in order to understood well whether they are valuable to translate for international uses or not. We recommend that international organizations; such as OECD, FAO, etc. should collaborate on translating project final reports into English, which would be helpful in coping with global agricultural problems. Long-term surveys in agriculture should also be conducted by all nations to understand agricultural changes and technological development.

Original Research Article
Koksal KARADAS, YakupErdalERTURK1, Okan DEMIR2

The study was conducted to determine the satisfaction of agricultural cooperative members, the relationship between the demographic characteristics of the members and their viewpoints on being important members of agricultural cooperatives in Igdir province. The survey data were obtained from 133 members selected randomly from 3726 cooperative members on the basis of Simple Coincidental Exemplification method and exposed to binary logistic regression analysis. In the study designed as two models, only a binary dependent variable is "organization protects the benefits of the producer"(coded as yes and no). Independent variables in Models 1 and 2 are demographic variables and items of the ideas about the organization, respectively. In the study, the benefits of the members, the concept of the organization’s being reliable, conducting trainings for its members, and the idea of the cooperative members was estimated. The members of the cooperatives must be encouraged by training, advising, and collaborating researches to visit the cooperatives more often and to be interested in the activities. The young population should be motivated to play an active role in the organization so that a sustainable cooperative system could be maintained in the region.

Fexofenadine is widely used drug for allergic conditions especially Rhiniti and is a selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist. In our recent research we study the effect of acidic and alkaline medium on four different brands of Fexofenadine, for this the solutions of different brands of Fexofenadine were subjected to neutral,alkaline and acidic medium. When Fexofenadine brands subjected to 0.1 N HCl and 0.1N NaOH for 30 minutes, Fexofenadine brands showed variable availability results. Xanidine and Telefast donot show any change in absorbance in acidic medium but shows a decrease in absorbance in alkaline medium. While Allerga shows a decrease in absorbance in both acidic and alkaline medium. Fexet also shows a decrease in absorbance in acidic medium but shows a increase in absorbance in alkaline medium.

The more drugs a patient requires, the increased risk of a drug–drug interaction. Unfortunately it is impractical to just stop possibly offending drugs, however the drug interactions need to be overseen as securely as could be expected under the circumstances.Drug-drug interactions(DDIs) in a small extent produces clinically important pharmacokinetic changes and produces potential unfavorable outcome.

Original Research Article
Sadia Saleem Rao1, Rahila Najam1, Syed Atif Abbas2

Aim of the study was to examine the efficacy of a combination herbal product from Malaysian market. This herbal product is traditionally being used for managing diabetes mellitus. The herbal combination is a mixture of Momordica charantia, Punica granatum, Lawsonia inermis and Tamarindus indica. The drug was administered orally at the dose of 620mg/70kg once daily for the duration of 42 days to alloxan induced diabetic rats. The effects of this herbal combination were compared with standard drug, sulphonylurea (Glibenclamide). Efficacy of the drug was monitored at intervals with respect to fasting and random glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin. Results revealed that the combination of four herbs reduced fasting glucose levels and random glucose levels. HbA1C was observed to be less than 7% by this herbal combination. However, the herbal combination failed to produce the efficacy comparable to the standard drug, Glibenclamide.

Angiogenesis is the process of formation of new blood vessels from the pre-existing blood vessels controlled by various growth regulators. Disturbances of this regulatory process, by different physiological and pathological disorders results in angiogenesis which leads to the progression of tumor formation. The present study was aimed to explore the effect of Morus nigra (Berry), on angiogenesis by using CAM assay on chicken embryo model. Fertilized eggs were incubated on the 5th day at 37 ºC and dose of different dilutions 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5% of this plant extract was applied on 6th day. Evaluation of PBVs, SBVs and TBVs, 3D roughness parameters, angular spectrum and abbot curve of treated CAMs was made on 7th day by image probing system (SPIP). Morus nigra showed antiangiogenic effect by reducing the diameter of CAM blood vessels by applying the dilutions of 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5% while significant results were obtained at dilution of 0.5%.

The prepared nano sized ammonium polyphosphates (APP) from ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and urea in the presence of ammonia solution was evaluated as flame retardant for polypropylene (PP). The results of study show that negligible change has occurred on the mechanical properties with APP addition. Both the thermogravimetric analysis (TG and DTA) and the cone calorimeter method were used for evaluation of PP/APP system. The results of TG and DTA show that the addition of APP with different percentage (1,3,5,10%) leads to decrease in the Tonset and increase in the Toutset, the calculated time of the complete degradation increases. This behavior means that the addition of different percentages of APP improve the flammability of PP. The total heat release (THR), the heat release rate(HRR), the mass loss rate (MLR), the time of ignition, the effective heat of combustion(EHC), and the smoke production and toxic gas formation were estimated from the profile of the cone calorimeter curves. From these parameters, it is observed that all the parameters decrease by adding APP to PP. From the analysis of data, it may be conclude that the addition of APP to PP improves the flammability without remarkable effect on the mechanical properties.

Original Research Article
Shabana Naz Shah* and Waseem Shahzad

Ribavirin are used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C with compensated liver disease, in the present study we manufactured the new formulations of Ribavirin capsules by using Microcrystalline cellulose PH 102, Di-calcium phosphate, Povidone K 30, Crospovidone, Aerosil 200 and Magnesium stearate. This study is alienated into two phases. The first phase of the study comprises of new formulation of Ribavirin capsules which were prepared. Whereas in the 2nd phase of study new formulation is evaluated for their physical parameters like average weight, weight variation, disintegration time and also evaluated the chemical analysis like dissolution behaviour and assay. All quality control parameters: average weight, weight variation test, disintegration test, dissolution test and assay were carried out specified by BP/USP (British and United state Pharmacopoeia) for capsules. The results showed that all parameters of new formulations are in accordance with the BP/USP limits.

Gastrointestinal smooth muscle spasm is the major cause of symptoms of different gastrointestinal disorders. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of Jamun fruit (Eugenia jambolana) extract. The experiment was performed on forty rabbits, properly dissected. Study was performed on Power Lab System. Acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin, and calcium were used in increasing doses to obtain significant contractions in the ilium until the ceiling effect was observed. Thereafter, these drugs were used in the presence of different doses of Jamun extract. Shift of different concentration-response curves in each group was obtained. Percentage inhibition was determined in each group. Statistical analysis showed that in the presence of antagonist dose response curve in acetylcholine and calcium group were more significant than serotonin and histamine, while low doses of serotonin and histamine showed initially spasmogenic effects. Muscle contraction was measured using isometric transducer. Difference in proportions was examined by using ANOVA. Before and after using the drugs, the changes were compared and significance of the study was judged. It can be concluded from current results that Jamun can provide useful spasmolytic effect in different intestinal disorders.

Syeda Sadaf Haider

Cryptosporidiosis is an infection caused by Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite of clinically importance. It is transmitted by contaminated water and in individuals with proper immune systems it usually causes diarrhea, but in case of immunocompromised people, like those suffering of AIDS, the disease is usually severe and it can be fatal. It is known to be zoonotic in nature. In other words, Cryptosporidiosis can be spread naturally directly from cats to their keepers. Oocyst is a critical stage and mainly responsible for causing infection with typical gastrointestinal manifestations in humans. Medically important ones are C. parvum and C. hominis, causing infections. The classic symptoms include watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and Fever etc. The infection is self-limiting so oral o as well as intravenous rehydration and replacement of electrolytes are usually suggested. Moreover, the best of avoiding is to promote the practices of hand washing and hygienic standards in the mass.

Practice Insight
Muhammad Wasim, Taseer Ahmad, Aftab Ullah

The aim of this study was to evaluate case histories of patients admitted and also to highlight the role of pharmacist at ward level in Hayat Abad Medical Complex (HMC), Peshawar. A standard questionnaire was designed and thirty case histories of different diseases in medical ward were collected. The percentage incidence of different diseases like, diabetes mellitus (6.7%), respiratory tract infection (13.3%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (16.6%) and hypertension (6.7%) were documented, in which percentage incidence of malaria (16.7%) was higher from the rest of diseases. The drugs which have observed for numerous drug interactions were steroidal drugs, warfarin, PPIs, benzodiazepines, NSAIDs, furosemide and anti T.B drugs. The most frequently recorded intervention was additive type (80%). In order to eliminate such undesired accomplishments clinical pharmacist services must be brought at ward level in health care system.

A simple, rapid, isocratic, high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the first time for simultaneous determination of ACE inhibitors (captopril, lisinopril and enalapril) and diclofenac sodium in bulk drugs, pharmaceutical products and human serum. The separation was performed on a Purospher Start C18 (250cm x 4.6mm, 5µm) and Hypersil ODS (25cm x 4.6mm 5µm ) column using methanol–water as mobile phase 80:20 (v/v) and 60:40 (v/v) as diluent. The pH of mobile phase was adjusted to 3.0 with ortho-phosphoric acid, flow rate was adjusted to 1 mLmin-1 at room temperature and analytes peaks were observed using UV detector at 220 nm. The retention times of captopril, lisinopril, enalapril and diclofenac sodium were 2.5, 3.8, 4.5 and 5 min and LLOD, LLOQ were 1, 4, 2, 6, 3 and 12, 8, and 14 ngmL-1 respectively. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The linearity of the method was studied over the concentration range of 2.5–50 µgmL-1 for ACE inhibitors and diclofenac sodium, where it demonstrated good linearity with r = 0.9998, 0.9999, 0.9997, and 0.9998 (n = 6), respectively. The HPLC method presented here shows an easy but reliable and precise analysis of the antihypertensive drugs captopril, lisinopril, enalapril, and diclofenac sodium. The values for LLOD, precision of RT, precision of area and linearity shows good performance of the analysis. The developed method was successfully applied to quantitate, the three ACE inhibitors and diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical formulations and human serum.

Review Article
Rehman Ullah Khan, Sultan Mehmood Wazir, Saad Ullah Khan, Rafi Ullah

In the present study 47 recopies belonging to 44 genera, and 34 families were studied. Plant name, constituents, preparation method, frequency distribution and recipes multifunctional nature were given in methodical manner. The local population had good knowledge about the medicinal plant and appropriate time of collection. Younger generation is disregard about indigenous uses of different medicinal plants, but the old inhabitants still acquires knowledge about how to use the wild resources. The plants use for abdominal pain were Aloe vera, Chenopodium murale, Foeniculum vulgare, Lepidium sativaum, Portulaca oleraceae, Mentha longifolia, Menthe viridis, Papaver someniferum, Punica protopunica, Rumex hestatus, Thymus sarphylum and Verbescum thapsus. Some were used as tonic like Acacia modesta, Calotropis proceera, Olea ferruginea, Zathoxylum armatum, Melia azedarach, Tribulus terrestris, Vitex negundo, and Teucrium stocksianum, while other were used against diarhoea i.e Punica protopunica, Verbascum thapsus, Quercus incana, Plantago lanceolata, Pinus roxurghii, Papver somniferum, Myrtus cummunis and Mentha longifolia were commonly used plants. For body cooling Adiantum capallis veneris, Ajuga breteosa, Cichorium intybus, Portulaca oleraceae, Nasturtium officinale, Pistacia integerrima and Tribulus terrestris were frequently used. Similarly plants used as expectorant were Justacia adhatoda, Calotropis procera, Pinus roxburghii, and Zyziphus sativa, while plants used as antispasmodic were Justacia adhatoda, Berberis lycium and Datura stramonium, the plants used as jaundice were Berberis lycium, Cichorium intybus, Nasturtium officinale, Pistacia integerrima, and Teurium stocksianum, while Verbascum thapsus, Zizphus sativa, and Salvia moorcrotiana were used as emollient. The vegetation of the area was found to be under high biotic pressure such as deforestation and overgrazing. Ruthless collection of medicinal plants had threatened their existence and more plants are becoming vulnerable due to the destruction of their habitat.

The utilization of plants for the development of new drugs and alternate therapies is mainly due to the wide spread confidence that medicines obtained from plants are secure, economical, and quite effective when compared with synthetically prepared medicines based on cost, efficacy, unwanted and harmful effects. This global trend for the use of medicines derived from natural sources particularly from plants has created an emergent need for accurate, detailed, and thorough information about the usefulness, particular constituents properties, effectiveness, and safety of plant and its products of medicinal interest. Pomegranate (Punica granatum, Latin name) is a fruit having deciduous shrub or little trees of 5-8 meters height. Pomegranate has become of great interest for researchers for the development of lots of new drugs because of its different nutritional components and their miraculous properties as improving skin health, anti-inflammatory agent, obesity reducer, antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, its effects on different enzymes, effect on cellular differentiation. Previous researches have indicated that metabolites of Pomegranate fruit extract ellagitannins are particularly localized in colon, prostate gland, and mice intestinal tissues and show their effects. The objective of this review is to study all the constituents of pomegranate fruit, its dietary importance and physical, chemical as well as toxicological properties of this fruit. Thorough analysis of all these properties strongly suggests a wide range use of Pomegranate for clinical applications.

Survey Report
Humera Khatoon, Safila Naveed1 and Kiran Shahid

Objective of this study is to determine the awareness among student of Pharm D with Angina Pectoris (AP) regarding the disease, sign & symptoms and treatment.The term Angina Pectoris is applied to varying forms of transient chest discomfort that are attributable to insufficient myocardial oxygen. The classic description of angina is a crushing pain that radiates through the chest and sometimes down the arm, neck, teeth /jaw or into the back, which is usually aggravated by exertion or stress. Angina is a warning sign that the heart muscle is not getting adequate blood supply and specially oxygen and it may lead to myocardial infarction or a heart attack. Therefore, a survey was performed to investigate the awareness of angina pectoris among Pharm D students of JUW Karachi. A questionnaire on angina pectoris was publicized and distributed among Pharm D students from Feburary to March 2014. The questionnaire included 6 six questions and covered the disease ,types of angina , sign & symptoms of angina , physical examination and diagnostic tests required to be done and treatment of angina pectoris. From the questionnaire we observed that Pharmacy fifth year students are well aware about the disease as compare to third year students specially about diagnostic test and treatment. We have got highly significant difference < 0.005 p value for diagnostic test and treatment . From the survey we conclude that pharmacy student well aware about the disease.

Short communication
Iftikhar Ali, Roheena Zafar, Aziz Ullah Khan

The purpose of this study was to evaluate pharmacotherapy provided, to identify drug related problems and to highlight the role of pharmacist at ward level in tertiary care hospitals. Drug related problems are quite common in hospitalized patients and can results in patient’s morbidity, mortality, and increase the expenditure of therapy and lengthen the hospital stay. A total of 30 patient’s case histories were recorded in medical Ward at Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar on the standard designed questionnaire. The percentage occurrence of different disease likediabetes mellitus (26.66%), Malaria (16.6%), COPD (10%), Stroke (10%), T.B (6.6%) and CHF (6.6%) were determined .Diabetes mellitus was higher among diseases. The drugs with potential drug interactions were dexamethasone, furosemide, omeprazole, aspirin, rifampicin.Interventions like addition of new drug was highest among the recorded interventions.With the focus on individual patient, extensive and responsible clinical pharmacy services will be a key segment of present-day health care.

Original Research Article
Saba Mazhar, Mariam Nawaz, Muhammad Tahir Aziz, Sidrah Andleeb

Objective:The study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of use of aromatase inhibitors (AI) and tamoxifen treatment in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal breast cancer patients. Method: The prescription data of 143 patients was reviewed for evaluation of letrozole, anastrazole and tamoxifen utilization between years 2006-2013 at SKMCH&RC. Use was analyzed against pre-menopausal and post-menopausal status of the patients using hospital information software (HIS) for data collection. NCCN Breast Cancer Guidelines were used as reference. Results:Tamoxifen upfront use in pre-menopausal women with breast cancer was 93.3%, while that of Aromatase inhibitor was 6.7%. Tamoxifen was used as second line therapy in pre-menopausal women in 6.7% while aromatase inhibitor was used as second line therapy in pre-menopausal women in 93.3%. Tamoxifen upfront in post-menopausal was 18.6%, aromatase inhibitor upfront in post-menopausal was 81.4%. Conclusion:Tamoxifen is used as first line therapy in majority of pre-menopausal breast cancer patients while aromatase inhibitors are used as second line. In case of post-menopausal breast cancer patients aromatase inhibitors are used as first line in majority of patients while tamoxifen is used as second line.

Original Research Article
Isa Yilmaz*1, Ecevit Eyduran1, Ali Kaygisiz2 and Galip Bakir2

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of non-genetic factors on the birth weight of Brown-Swiss calves, maintained at Sultansuyu State Farm (lat. 380 E, long. 380 N, and 981 m above sea level) of Malatya province in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey during the years 1984-2010. Data on birth weight, calving season, calf sex, and calving year were collected from 3168 Brown Swiss calves. The data were exposed to regression tree method, which is a tree-based and a non-parametric method. In this method, birth weight, an important trait in cattle breeding, was a response variable and environmental factors such as calf sex, calving season and year were accepted as explanatory variables. Statistical evaluations were done using SPSS (Exhaustive CHAID) statistical package program. In the present study, birth year was the most significant factor for birth weight (P<0.01), followed by sex (P<0.01) and calving season (P<0.01). The highest average birth weight was recorded for the calves born during the years 1999-2001. The calves born in summer and fall seasons of 2002-2004 years were lighter than those born in winter and spring seasons of same years. Sex of calf influenced birth weight of calves born between the years 1991 and 1995 (P<0.01). Among factors, calving season was a factor that had highly statistical influence on birth weight of the group of calves born between 2002 and 2004 years. As a result, use of regression tree method, which is not influenced by multicollinearity, outlier, and missing values is recommended with the objective to identify factors that can be statistically significant on birth weight of Brown Swiss calves.

Original Research Article
Faiza Rasheed, Waqas Khan Kayani, Adeel Mahmood and Muhammad Gulfraz

In vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activities of various leaf extracts of Justicia adhatoda L. (locally known as Bhaikar) were assessed. The leaves were also subjected to various phytochemical analysis. Results revealed that leaves of J. adhatoda L. contain significant amount of total alkaloid, phenols flavonoid, saponins, tannins , protein, crude oil, dietary fiber, essential and non essential metal ions. The methanol, ethanol, butanol, chloroform and n-hexane leaf extracts of J. adhatoda significantly inhibited the growth of all bacteria tested as compared to standard antibiotic. However, acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of J. adhaotda were not effective against any bacteria. Methanol extract of J. addhatoda provide lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for E. coli (1.0 mg/ml ) followed by Klebsella. pneumoni ( 1.2 mg/ml), where as MIC values of other solvent extracts were in the order of ethanol > chloroform>n-hexane > butanol. The order of antioxidant activities of various leaf extracts found in different solvent extractions was ethanol >methanol >chloroform> water> butanol>. This study will help to promote scientifically use of J. adhatoda in local medicine as well as its use as an important raw material for pharmaceutical industries.

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of allyl alcohol produced by the thermal decomposition of garlic against food borne pathogen Candida Albicans, and to find out the minimum inhibitory concentration of allyl alcohol in heated garlic. The initial concentration of the organism “Candida Albicans” was estimated by direct microscopic count (DMC) method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests were performed to observe the antimicrobial activity of allyl alcohol-a product of garlic, against Candida Albicans at different pH levels and heating times such as: pH 4 and heating time 90 min, pH 4 and heating time 30 minutes, pH 8 and heating time 90 minutes, and pH 8 and heating time 30 minutes respectively in the YMPG broth and PDA agar, by incubating at 350C for 24 hours. Similarly HPLC method was used to determine the amount of extracted product of garlic - allyl alcohol at different pH levels. It has been observed that allyl alcohol showed comparatively more anti yeast activity at pH 4, with heating time 90 minutes, which is 1.56% at dilution 1/64. Similarly generation of allyl alcohol from heated garlic extract by HPLC test was found maximum at pH 4, and time 90 minutes that is 8.05 % as compared to other three combined variables of pH, and time. The findings of present study clearly met with the hypothesis that allyl alcohol in heated garlic had anti yeast activity, it was able to inhibit the growth of pathogen such as Candida Albicans, by extending heating time at low pH level.

Original Research Article
Zahida Bano, Abida Begum and Khalida Bano

This study was carried in Mastuj valley; it is based on the results of ethno-botanical study of some plants in Mastuj valley. My research study contains 20 plants belonging to 14 families including, 1 monocot, 1 gymnosperm and 18 dicots. Family Alliaceae contain (1spp) F. Salicaceae (1 spp) F. Asteraceac (3 Spp) F. Poaceae (1 spp) F. Papilionaceae (2 spp) ,F.Cucurbitaceae (1 spp) ,F.Mimosaceae (1 spp),F.Solanaceae (2 spp) ,F.Polygonaceae (1 spp),F.Capparidaceae (1 spp) ,F.Lamiaceae (3 spp) ,F.Ephidraceae (1 spp), F.Apiaceae (1 spp) and F.Papaveraceae (1 spp). The ethno-botanical study show that about 19 spp were used as a fodder ,16 as a medicinal ,5 for fire wood ,4 vegetable ,4 ornamental ,2 timber production ,1 plant is used in basketry ,1 plant is a source of building material ,1 used in musical instrument ,2 plant are source of paint production ,1 specie is used for paper production and 1 for soap production .11 plants are cultivated and 9 are wild plants.

Case study
Yusra Habib Khan, Amer Hayat Khan

Scabies is a deleterious skin infection caused by a parasite named as Sarcoptes scabiei. Despite of availability of treatment, annually there are approximately 300 million cases of scabies worldwide. Infection becomes worse when scabies is accompanied by any other skin infection especially one involving abscess. An abscess is an inflamed lump that is filled by pus as a result of bacterial infection. Current case report is of prime importance for delivering information, to general community, regarding rare combination of these common diseases.

This study was conducted to investigate flora of the Huzurlu Plateau in Gaziantep located in the south-east Anatolia region of Turkey. For this aim, during the floristic surveys of the Huzurlu Plateau in Gaziantep province of the Turkey, 715 species of 331 genera belonging to 85¬ family were recorded. Of all the collected specimens, 29 and 91 taxa were found to be rare plants and endemic, respectively, for Turkey. According to IUCN categories, 2 were Critically Endangered (CR) and 10 were Endangered (EN) of total 12 taxa recorded in this study area, besides, 101 taxa (84%) for Gaziantep and 32 taxa (26%) were new records for C6 grid square of the collected endemic and rare plants. As a result, this is the first study of investigating the flora of the Huzurlu Plateau in Gaziantep province, at the south-east Anatolia region of Turkey.

This simple and easy study was conducted to trace out the actual temperature and time period to get rid of pathogenic bacteria from the water sample simply by boiling method. There is no perfect scientific basis yet exists from the search of literature regarding effect of boiling on water borne pathogens. Four common water borne pathogens were selected (Salmonella typhi, Shigella. dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia. coli), artificially contaminated the samples and were subjected to 40oC, 60oC, 80oC and 100oC various temperatures. The result findings indicate that all four pathogens survived till 10 minutes at 40oC. However, two bacterial cultures i.e S. typhi and V. cholerare (105cfu/ml) survived at 60oC in 5 minutes but not in 10 minutes. None of the growth of four pathogens were observed in rest of the exposure of temperature at 80oC and 100oC. It concludes that absolute eradication can be achieved at 80oC and therefore, boiling of water is quite safe for human consumption.

In the present study, we synthesized Novel ligand and their metal complexes with 8-((2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydrazono)methyl)-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one ligand. The colored complexes were prepared by the addition of chloride salts of Manganese(II), Cobalt(II), Nickel(II) and Copper(II) to a solution of ligand. In conclusion, the structures of the obtained complexes were characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis, UV-spectral studies, conductmetric and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The synthesized metal complexes were investigated for biological activities. Enzymatic inhibition activity has been done by using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, antioxidant activity by DPPH assay and also the antimicrobial studies. All tested metal complexes and ligand reveal effective biological activities.

Original Research Article
Sonia Imtiaz, Sahar Abdullah, Saima Afzal, Gohar Rehman, Mamoona Waheed

This study is aimed to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional healers of Punjab, Pakistan. The medicinal uses were documented by semi structured interview of the registered herbalists & relevant literatures were also reviewed. The data was collected by visiting the study area from Feb 2013 to August 2013. All traditional plants having therapeutic activity were crosschecked with existing literature on ethno botany. In our data about 150 indigenous plant species, which belongs to 55 families were documented along with their local names, part used and the use value of each species. This Data showed that highest number of plants used by local community belongs to Asteraceae Family. In our data Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels has the highest use value that is 1 and the plants with lowest use value (0.2) are Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Ruellia tuberose L., Aerv javanica (Burm.f) juss. It is concluded from data that our study area possesses a variety of indigenous medicinal plants that are widely used by hakims, herbalists for primary health care of local community of Province Punjab, Pakistan.

Original Research Article
Orhan Yilmaz, Saim Boztepe, Mehmet Ertugrul

The objective of this study is to define domestic donkey giving some information about species characters including taxonomy, origin, terms, ecology, form, lifespan, behaviour, vocal expression, colour, markings, and relationships with other species, religion and myth.The donkey is an odd-toed ungulate. Donkeys may be the only hoofed animal domesticated first in Africa, and apparently the first to be domesticated for transport. In the Middle East, in past centuries, there were special breeds of donkey reserved for royalty and the nobility. Compared to a horse, a donkey seems slender and delicate.

Background: The objective of the present study was to compare the results obtained by different methods used in glucose monitoring. Diabetic patients are known to use urine glucose strips or dipsticks tests or glucose pads for urine analysis. Blood glucose monitoring instruments such as different types of blood gluco-meters and digital blood glucose monitoring devices are also available in the local market for home glucose testing. Methodology: Some of those tests are officially used in the laboratories of different hospitals, where routine analysis is mainly done on advanced Chemical Analyzers. Results: Some discrepancies were observed in the results of glucose monitoring by different methods. A serious interference was recorded by ascorbic acid in reagent-strip reactions for assay of urinary glucose and hemoglobin. The test methods are known to be based on different chemical reactions including enzymatic and color reactions. Conclusion: Mostly, the urine concentration of ascorbic acid, uric acid, mercury, copper and iron were labeled to be the main cause of interference. In the present study 2991 urine samples having detectable ascorbic acid levels (?10 mg/dL) were tested by different methods and the results were compared with standard Dimension Chemical Analyzer (Dimension Dade Behring). Ascorbic acid in various concentrations was found to cause serious interference in glucose monitoring, however, hexokinase method was found more reliable.

Pure culture of wild type of Aspergillus niger was subjected to gamma rays mutagenesis at different dose rates (40 to 120 k.Rads). The mutant strains of Aspergillus niger were isolated and selected by random screening method. The selected mutant derived strains were compared with parent type of Aspergillus niger for enhanced production potential of mutarotase. A mutant strain of Aspergillus niger with maximum production potential of mutarotase was finally selected. The enzyme activity of wild type strain was 4.33 U/mL whereas the mutant derived strain showed significantly higher enzyme activity (22.0 U/mL). It is concluded that gamma irradiation of Aspergillus niger can be used for hyperproduction of mutarotase for its ultimate use in clinical diagnostic kits.

Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) is most curable form of cancer. HL accounts for 10% of lymphoma. The etiology of it remains unrevealed for a long time, now the outlook for HL has improved over the past 30 years. It responds well to the treatment. The cure rate tends to be higher in adults as compare to the elder ones. A nineteen year female was presented in a hospital with HL. On basis of her medical investigation the physician prescribed intravenous decadron 8mg in normal saline of 500ml once, adriblastina 30 mg in normal saline 100ml over 10 mins, setrovel 5mg IV, bleomycin 15mg IV, vinblastin 6mg IV,DTIC 430 MG in 5% D/W 500 mg IV over 3 hours and filgen 300mg S.C once daily. Vital signs showed fever, weakness and loss of appetite.PR 118/minute, 100 F temperature, and BP 90 /60, Wt 37 kg. General appearance was paleness, fever and anemia. Lab tests: Hb 6, Platelets 82,000.TLC 55000, AFB +ve, MCV 73.4, MCH 21.1.There were certain inaccuracies seen during treatment. So an optimal and safe clinical practice should be implement in health centres.Poor and sub-standard services should be minimize to enhance and improve the health and pharmaceutical care. Thus; the proper clinical care should be delivered to minimize the health hazards related to this mortal disease.

Review Article
S.A. Abbas1, U.A. Khan and A.B.M. Helal Uddin

Neurotransmission of serotonin and its derivative is said to be effected by changing of season in temperate countries. The effect of photoperiod and temperature can alter the production of serotonin and melatonin in body. The depression in serotonin availability in brain leads to a depressive or bipolar disorder. The activity of tryptophan hydroxylase to synthesis serotonin and monoamine oxidase (MAO) to inactivate serotonin is affected by season change. Calcitriol can stimulate tryptophan hydroxylase to produce serotonin. CREM gene works by memorizing work base on previous memory on how much serotonin will be produce. Melatonin it’s a serotonin derivative act as endocrine because it produce from pineal gland and retina. Melatonin has diurnal circadian pattern. Melatonin production is not decline by increasing in age. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) gene is one of the cAMP inducible genes is an enzyme important in production of melatonin.

Short communication
Ashfaq Ahmad, Khurram Afzal, Naeem Riaz, Huda Jamal, Saba Faryad, Farzana Zafar

Myocardial infarction is simply due to decreased supply of oxygen and blood to the particular tissue of heart which ultimately leads to the death of tissue. Naturally heart is quite stable in its involuntary action due to balance between oxygen supply and oxygen demand of the cardiac muscle. when this balance is disturbed by the clot formation(atherosclerosis) in coronary artery or increased demand of oxygen due to increased heart rate then clinical situation arises as tightening of chest,laboured breathing, sweating and radiating pain originating form chest and terminating to left arm and jaws as well. A male of 55 years was hospitalized in one of the most well reputed hospital of Federal area of Pakistan. The patients was nimble due to cold sweating, sever radiating left sided chest pain and was in the state of fear and apprehension. As an acute case of M.I, patient was initially treated with thrombolytic agent, Streptokinase injection 1.5 MIU through I.V infusion in one hour, tab lowplat (Clopidogrel), tab Loprin (asprin), tab Lasix (Diuretic) and tab digoxin 0.25 mg for limited days. Urine and blood samples were collected to investigate the cause and mitigate the worst clinical situation. Laboratory finding showed normal results and controlled lipid profile. Most important cardiac enzymes were in normal function .After the six days of careful monitoring, patient was discharged by prescribing tab loprin75 mg,tab lowplat 75 mg tab Lasix 40 mg,tab digoxin 0.25 mg and with precautionary measurements regarding diet control to prevent another incidence.Inview to provide aggressive therapy to save life in emergency situation, rational use of medicinal agents was neglected and prescription errors have been identified which can further worse the situation.

Original Research Article
Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem, Haroon-ur-Rashid and Sajid Bashir

A number of plants including Berberis aristata roots are considered effective as antidiabetic agents in ethnomedical practices. In this study effects of certain isolated fractions from root-bark of Berberis aristata on blood glucose levels were determined in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. In normal rabbits, ethanolic fraction in 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg produced significant decrease (P<0.05 or 0.001) at 8 and 12 hrs. Its acidified-basified fraction showed significant lowering of blood sugar at 2, 4, 8 and 12 hrs. The chloroform: methanol fraction also produced significant hypoglycaemic effect at these intervals. In alloxan-diabetic rabbits, ethanolic fraction in doses similar to normal animals produced significant decrease in blood glucose at 2, 4, 8 and 12 hrs. Also, acidified-basified fraction of the root-bark in 100 and 125mg/kg doses produced significant decrease in the levels at 2, 4 and 8 hrs. In these animals, its chloroform: methanol fraction (4 and 5mg/kg) produced significant effect at 8 and 12 hrs, while at the dose 6mg/kg body weight was found to be significant decrease blood glucose level at 2 and 4 hrs and highly significant decrease blood glucose level at 8 and 12 hrs interval. Gliclazide in 500mg/kg produced significant decrease blood glucose level at 2, 4, 8 and 12 hrs in normal rabbits only but not in alloxan-diabetics. Thus our data showed that the test fractions of B. aristata root-bark produce significant hypoglycaemia in both, normal and diabetic rabbits. These appear to be more potent hypoglycaemic than even gliclazide. In addition, it appears that active ingredients of this plant act by producing an organotropic effect on pancreatic ß-cells, which results in increased release of insulin from the islets of Langerhans in the rabbits. These natural products also possess some insulin-like activity in alloxan-diabetic rabbits as alloxan has been reported to be a specific ß-cytotoxic drug by complexing with the metal ions in the islets. However, further investigations are still needed to elucidate the mechanism of hypoglycaemic effect and to isolate the exact active principles of the B. aristata roots.

Original Research Article
S.A. Nagra, N. Shaista, M.Z.A. Nomani, and A. Ali

The present study evaluated the effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic changes in serum proteins concentration in male and female university students. Thirty healthy university students (15 female and 15 male; average age 22 ? 1.8 years) with average body weights of 52.4 ? 2.8 kg and 64.7 ? 5.1 kg for female and male respectively, residing in separate university student’s hostel for males and females but with common dining arrangements, participated in the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained two days before the start of Ramadan fast and on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of Ramadan. Daily dietary energy and protein intakes were 2100 ? 141 kcal and 2378 ? 145 kcal and 55.4 g and 58.8 g for females and males respectively. Overall the body weight did not show any significant (P > 0.05) variation during or at the end of fasting period. Serum total proteins and albumin levels declined in both the genders with advancing days of fasting. The decline in albumin levels in females was however much sharper and curvilinear (r2 = 0.4, P < 0.001) whereas in males it was linear (r = -0.69, P <0.001). The minimum level of albumin (4.2 g/dL) reached on 21st and 28th day of fasting. Although the levels of serum globulin, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the advancement of fasting days, the values remained within the normal physiological limits. The results suggest that Ramadan fasting has no adverse effects in normal healthy male and female university students.

The diabetic complications have become a world health problem. They prevail throughout the world but their percentages differ in different areas due to cultural influences. Therefore, we have determined prevalence of complications of diabetes in the rural population of district Jhang (Pakistan). For this purpose, a performa was developed and information was collected from two hundred and ten (210) diabetic patients about their age, sex, height, socioeconomic status, educational status, type of diabetes, duration of diabetes, age at diagnosis, blood pressure and blood sugar levels ( fasting and random) and the symptoms of diabetes. Mainly the complications were compared with different variables or risk factors like diet, type of diabetes, obesity, sugar levels and uncontrolled diet. Retinopathy, carbuncles, pregnancy and hypertension complications in both sexes had non-significant (P>0.05) relationship with controlled diet but significant (P<0.05) with uncontrolled diet. Nephropathy and neuropathy showed significant relationship with controlled diet and non-significant with uncontrolled diet. Retinopathy, neuropathy and gangrene in both sexes were highly significantly (P<0.001) related with both types of diabetes. Pregnancy complications were also highly significantly related with obesity and random sugar levels and all other complications were non-significantly different from obesity and random as well as fasting sugar levels. Logistic regression model on the whole data showed that age, diet, diagnosis age and random sugar levels were significantly related with the prevalence of diabetic complications. While weight, blood pressure and fasting sugar levels had no relationship with the complications.

Original Research Article
Sufian Munawar, Ahmer Mehmood, Asif Ali

This work presents the analytic solution of flow of a viscous fluid between two stretching disks with slip boundaries. Suitable similarity transformations are used to normalize the governing system. Optimal homotopy analysis method has been used as a solution technique by considering one parameter; two parameters; three parameters and one step optimal HAM approaches. The solutions obtained through all these approaches are compared. It is observed that, although the solution series (obtained through Optimal HAM) attains convergence at initial few terms but, on the other hand the computational resources,required to acquire solution, increases indefinitely as we increase the order of approximation.The current analytic solution is compared with a numerical technique and it is found that both solutions are perfectly matched. The effects of material parameters on different physical quantities are illustrated through graphs and tables.

The anticancer potential of berries has been related, at least in part, to a multitude of bioactive phytochemicals. Anticancer effects of berry bioactive are partially mediated through their abilities to counteract, reduce, and also repair damage resulting from oxidative stress and inflammation. To explore the role of angiogenesis we used SPIP (scanning probe image processor) for quantification of results. 0.7% concentration of strawberry juice showed a marked anti-angiogenic effect. There was decrease in diameter of primary, secondary, tertiary blood vessels and decrease in roughness parameters.

Editor in Chief
Xianghui Qi (PhD)
Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China


Dr. Xianghui Qi is working as Professor in the School of Food & Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, China. His research interests: Biosynthesis of high value-added chemicals by microbes and engineered strains; Discovery of novel genes, enzymes and new strains; Rational & Irrational design of microbial enzymes; Isolation, identification and evolution of microbes; Metabolic engineering & Pathway engineering of functional microbes, and biotransformation; Metabolic regulation based on the research of microbial omics; Application of high value-added products including functional sugar alcohols by biosynthesis and biotransformation based on microbial engineered strains.

Journal Highlights
Abbreviation: Can J Appl Sci
Frequency: Annual
Current Volume: 7 (2017)
Next scheduled volume: December, 2018  
Back volumes: 1-7
Starting year: 2011
Nature: Online
Submission: Online
Language: English

Subject & Scope
  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology
  • Bioinformatics and Biometric
  • Chemical Technology
  • Dentistry and Hygiene
  • Environmental Health, Safety and Allied Sciences
  • Food and Nutrition
  • Health Management
  • Medical Sciences
  • Molecular/ Cellular Biology
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • Pharmacotherapy
  • Theoretical Models (health, life and clinical practice)
  • Veterinary, Fishery and Animal Biology

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