Recent Publications

In the past decade, depot systems for tissue engineering, cell therapy, biomedical research, and therapeutic proteins, have been extensively investigated. Hydrogels offer an interesting platform for sustained delivery of biologicals as these can be readily formulated with limited impact on their integrity and stability. Their high-water content and porous structures make them especially suitable for loading with therapeutic proteins However, relatively rapid release of the hydrophilic compounds (period of hours to days) and limited drug loading capacity (<10%) present major challenges. Cleavable cross-linker or hydrogels that respond to an external trigger such as ultrasound have been suggested as suitable alternatives. However, scale-up and cost-effective manufacturing using safe and established excipients remains a challenge and hydrogels for biologicals are at present scarcely developed beyond the clinical evaluation phases. While some commercial products are available the future of hydrogels for biologicals depends on the medical needs, the general benefit/risk balance, and overall costs.

The philosophy of patient care is a wide and complicated topic of literature. That is elaborated by different health institution to harmonize their local clinical activities. Undoubtedly, that is working successfully to satisfy patients, fulfill the requirement of clinicians and cover maximum mutual benefits within officially allocated budget. However, patient care has different comprehension in different demographic and socio-political setting. But, in general, the meaning, understanding and composition of clinical and pharmaceutical patient care may be same all over world. The pharmacists, clinicians and administration adopt, exercise and emphasize on certain parts depending upon the type of challenges, kind of patients and available health care facilities. Thus, the health care is an emerging field that always remained under consideration. The local and international experts like to work, contribute and improve it to enhance the public health. Even some time judiciary, parliament and local intelligentsia focus and emphasize to address some particular health related problems. So, we may need to elaborate the comprehension to satisfy the literature and logical need of health and medicine including identification of problems, designing treatment protocol and handling the complication of therapy. That may potentially improve the overall outcomes and maximize the patient’s benefit. After twenty five years the definition of pharmaceutical care is still unsatisfactory. The confusion remained about what this term comprises and how to distinguish it from other terms. The board of the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) felt essential to rephrase pharmaceutical care and to answer the question: "What is Pharmaceutical Care ". The patient care is not perfectly incorporated into the health care system in most part of the world. However, pharmacy practice has shown positive attitudes toward patient care provision. Thus, an advanced working should focus to improve the understanding the concept of patient care and overcome barriers.

Most people have the mistaken belief that being natural, all herbs and foods are safe. It cannot be said to be true. The herbs and foods may interact with medications taken, that may result in serious side reactions. For the simple reason that like oral medication, food and herbs also traverse the same gastrointestinal path. Hence co-administration of drugs and food/herbs may affect the absorption of the drugs by altering gastric pH, secretion, gastrointestinal motility and transit time; and consequently therapeutic efficacy.

There is a tremendous unmet need to discover more potent and safe drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Reduced cholinergic activity and oxidative stress have been recognized as a major contributing factor in the pathogenesis of AD. Therefore, inhibition of cholinesterase and oxidation are the two promising strategies in the development of a drug for AD. This study determined the anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, anti-butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity, DPPH free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of Glycomis pentaphylla (Rutaceae). The objective of this study is to measure G. pentaphylla anti-AChE, anti-BChE, DPPH free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, antibacterial potentials to find out the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) against different pathogenic bacteria. G. pentaphylla leaf extract (GPEx) is exploited in the presented research to estimate its anticholinesterase, antioxidant potentials, and antibacterial properties. The cholinesterase inhibitory properties was quantified by modified Ellman method, and antioxidant potentials were evaluated by the assay of radical scavenging, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined using agar well diffusion method. The methanolic extract exhibited significant dual acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyryl cholinesterase (BChE) effect. The IC50 values of AChE and BChE were 325.1±0.91, and 42.14±3.31 µg/ml. Furthermore, the extract showed radical scavenging ability, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect. The IC50 values of the extract for DPPH and hydroxyl free radical scavenging, and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay were 95.6±0.68, 198.0±1.39, and 288.7±0.91 µg/ml, respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of significant total phenolics and flavonoids contents. Additionally, the extract showed good effect with the zone of inhibition ranging 12–16 mm in diameter against Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus. The tested sample reflects potential antioxidative and anticholinesterase inhibitory potentiality which may warrant its effectiveness in the treatment of AD along with good antibacterial properties.

Regenerative medicine is based on stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into special type of body cells, and hence, they were proven clinically successful in organ transplantation, as well as in the functional treatment of several diseases. Nanotechnology, which is the science depending on particles of dimensions below 1 micrometer has gained considerable interest in the field of regenerative medicine, especially when nanoparticles are constructed from biodegradable organic and inorganic biomaterials.

Review Article
Azhar Hussain, Madeeha Malik, Rabia Iram

The review concluded that consumers store a good number of medicines inappropriately at different places including bedroom, kitchen, on shelves and in reach of children at home. This reflects that consumers are not well informed regarding proper storage of medicines at home even at point of purchase. Such inappropriate practices could also lead to irrational drug use like accidental poisoning by children, self-medication, sharing of medicines, unsafe disposal harming environment resulting in wastage of resources spent on medicines from manufacture to delivery. There is strong need to provide legislative support in terms of restriction on sale of POM medicines. Participative role of pharmacist can help improve safe storage and use of medicines at home and ensure effectiveness of therapy.

Original Research Article
Eman M. Ahmed, Samer Y. Desoukey, Mostafa A. Fouad*, Mohamed S. Kamel

From the aerial parts of Russelia equisetiformis, eight compounds were isolated (1–8) and identified by different spectral techniques as well as comparison with reported data or authentic samples. The isolated compounds included an alkane (n-pentatriacontane) (1), a mixture of ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol (2), a triterpene (lupeol) (3), a mixture of ß-sitosterol- and stigmasterol-1-O-ß-D-glucopyranosides (4), a phenylpropanoidglucoside (4-Allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol-1-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside(5), a flavonoid (vitexin) (6) and the two closely related phenylethanoids (acteoside) (7) and isoacteoside (8). The anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antihyperglycemic activities were carried out on different plant fractions.

Context:Adverse effects after oral administration, as well as low solubility, present a substantial contest for the suitability of formulations for intranasal drug delivery. Objectives: The objective of the present work was to develop ezogabine nanosuspension for enhancement of solubility and direct olfactory administration by 32 full factorial design and determine its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile in rats. Methods:The ezogabine nanosuspension was developed by nanoprecipitation-ultrasonication method. The formulation was planned to develop by using a 2-factor, 3-level factorial design. The formulations were subjected to various in-vitro characterizations like particle size analysis, saturation solubility, in-vitro drug diffusion, zeta potential, SEM and TEM. The selected formulation was intranasally instilled into the nostrils of rats with the help of cannula for determining pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile in-vivo. Results: The formulation showed better results in terms of in-vitro and in-vivo study. The statistical analysis of data revealed that polymer concentration had significant effect on particle size and no significant effect on saturation solubility and in-vitro drug diffusion. Whereas, ultrasonication time had significant effect on particle size, saturation solubility and in-vitro drug diffusion (solubility). The Cmax revealed concentration of ezogabine in brain and plasma as 0.1812µg/ml and 0.183µg/ml, resp., for plain suspension and concentration of ezogabine in brain and plasma as 0.7885µg/ml and 0.7483µg/ml, resp, for nanosuspension at same dose of 1 mg/ml when administered intranasally. Conclusion:The present investigation confirmed that the potential of ezogabine nanosuspension for enhancement of aqueous solubility and providing direct nose-to-brain delivery.

ABSTRACT The antibacterial activity of acetone, methanol, and water-soluble extracts of both leaf and stem of Barleria lupulina were evaluated against some human pathogens viz., Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest antibacterial activities were exhibited at 100% concentrationof all the extracts against the bacterial pathogens. Acetone-soluble leaf (AL) and acetone-soluble stem (AS) extracts caused the maximum zone of inhibition against P. aureginosa, and methanol-soluble leaf (ML) and methanol-soluble stem (MS) extracts against of Salmonella typhi. However, Klebsiella pneumonia was inhibited by all the extracts. The result of HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid having different phyto-constituents having their Rf values. Twenty phyto-constituents were identified from all the extracts in which the major compounds were methyl ester, phytol, benzoic acid and propenoic acid as per GC-MS analysis.

Original Research Article
Saima Rehman, Shagufta Kamal, Shumaila Kiran, Ismat Bibi, Iqbal Hussain

Caffeine neither causing didn't decrease the risk of cancer, yet it used just to note the activity of cytochrome P-4501A2 (CYP1A2) by converting into its metabolite i.e., paraxanthine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the caffeine and its metabolite phenotypes and their relation to cancer risk in healthy female volunteers of local population in Pakistan. The average value of metabolic ratio [(1,7-dimethylxanthine (17X) and Caffeine 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (137X)] was found to be 1.182995 ± 0.21137. BMI (used to categorize into different groups, i.e., overweight, underweight etc.) of all volunteers were found to be 19.93Kg/m2. Retention time was 15 and 37 min for 1,7-dimethylxanthine (17DMX) and 1,3,7 trimethylxanthine (137TMX), respectively. The linearity of calibration curve of 137TMX and 17DMX were covered 0–12 µg/mL (R2 = 0.994). A significant positive correlation was observed between metabolic ratio and cancer risk factors. We could concluded that all the volunteers are fast metabolizers having a greater risk of cancerous diseases.

Background: Plants are rich source of antioxidants. They can ameliorate the oxidative stress induced complications. Cisplatin is a cytotoxic drug which produced unwanted effects in the patients due to generation of free radicals inside the body. Phyllanthus emblicuspossessed in vitro antioxidant activity. Objective: The current study was aimed to explore in vivo antioxidant potential of Phyllanthus emblicus against the oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in mice. Method: oxidative stress was induced in micewith acute toxic dose (10 mg/kg) of cisplatin given i.p. Animals were divided into five groups (n = 5). Group I: negative control, group II: positive control group III and IV were given methanol extract ofPhyllanthus emblicus (250- & 500 mg/kg; orally respectively) and group V was standard group receiving orally vitamin C & E (200 mg/kg each) for 20 days. On 21st day, animals were sacrificed and oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified. Result: Phyllanthus emblicusextract showed vigorous in vivo antioxidant effect at 500mg/kg by increasing the SOD, CAT, and GSH (antioxidant enzymes) levels in heart, liver, kidney and brain homogentaes and MDA level decreased. Plant also displayed a cure against oxidative stress induced changes in renal, liver and lipid profile parameters. Conclusion: Phyllanthus emblicusraised antioxidant enzyme levels in mice. It manifested hypolipidemic, hepato-renal curative effects. Its adjuvant use with standard therapies may help to resolve unwanted effects.

Original Research Article
Adeel Siddiqui, Zuhaib Jaffer Malik, Sidrah Andleeb

Vancomycin associated Red Man Syndrome (RMS) is a common infusion related adverse effect. A correlation has been proposed between vancomycin induced eosinophilia and occurrence of RMS.In such cases, it is identified that activated T-cells release cytokines, which tends to contribute to hypersensitivity reaction.A cross-sectional, retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the possible association of vancomycin induced eosinophilia with the occurrence of RMS at a local tertiary care cancer hospital. In this study the role of eosinophilia before the occurrence of RMS was focused. A twenty one month data was extracted from Jan, 2014 to Sep, 2015 and 8 patients were found to be reported for vancomycin induced RMS. Only one patient (12.5%) fulfilled the criteria for the drug rash eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) among the 8 patients. This particular patient had eosinophilia preceding RMS. In the study sample,2(25%) patients showed a rise in their eosinophil count but within the normal range.A correlation of eosinophilia and RMScould not be established in our study.

Original Research Article
Ritesh Rana, Rohit Bisht, Manoj kumar Sarangi

The present investigation deals with development and evaluation of mucoadhesive gastroretentive tablet of Norfloxacin using natural polymer from Tamrind seed polysaccharide. Natural polymers have been used widely in the sustained release of a variety of drugs to enhance their release patterns. The hypothesis behind this work is to increase the bioavailability of drug by gastro retentive approach. Different formulations (F1 to F12) have been prepared by wet granulation method. Preformulation studies such as melting point, U.V. scanning, solubility studies have been done. Drug polymer compatibility studies were done using FT-IR. Micromeretic studies such as bulk density, tapped density, carr’s index, hausner ratio and angle of repose were performed. Prepared tablets were further evaluated for mucoadhesive strength, swelling index, hardness, weight variation, friability, thickness has also been evaluated. The in- vitro drug release studies has been done or 8hrs by using USP-II apparatus with 0.1 N HCl. Different kinetic models were applied to study the release pattern of drug from the tablet. Based on the results of different studies formulation F10 was selected as best formulation. All the parameters were found within the acceptance limit and the formulated tablet shows extended release for 8 hrs.

Original Research Article
Kundan Singh Bora, Aruna Dubey

Objectives: Melissa parviflora (family: Lamiaceae) has been traditionally used as a tranquillizer, relaxants, nervine and sleeping aids throughout the world. The plant is widely valued for its calming properties and has a tonic effect on the heart but no work has ever been carried out for standardizing this potential plant. The present study was designed to establish macroscopic and microscopic determinations, and physico-chemical parameters for Melissa parviflora stem. Methods: WHO recommended methods and other standard procedures were employed for the establishment of pharmacognostic and physico-chemical parameters. Results: TS of M. parviflora stem under the microscope showed an epidermal layer, cortex, continuous thin cylinder of vascular tissues, uniseriate medullary rays and wide pith. The xylem segments posses several wide annular vessels. Glandular sessile trichomes and multicellular covering trichomes were also appeared in the TS of stem. The powdered drug under the microscope showed fragments of parenchymatous tissue with intercellular spaces and strands of vascular bundles. Epidermis appeared double layered elongated cell wall in surface view with papilla present in between the cells. Abundant simple multicellular covering trichomes and occasionally sessile glandular trichomes were found. Abundant annular types of xylem vessels and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals were present in the powdered drug. Physico-chemical parameters help to identify authentic plant material and check adulteration. In the present study different ash values and extractive values were also determined. Conclusion: The findings of the present study could be useful in setting some diagnostic indices for the identification and preparation of a monograph of M. parviflora.

Monoolein dispersions are of great importance as a colloidal drug delivery system due to its unique structure. Thus it was important to measure the drug release from such carrier system. Conventional release methods showed many drawbacks. In an attempt to avoid these drawbacks, the transfer of a lipophilic drug model porphyrin from donor monoolein dispersions into acceptor multilamellar vesicles (MLV) was carried out. The measurement of porphyrin transferred was performed after the separation between the donor and acceptor using a centrifugation technique or directly without separation using a flow cytometric technique. The transfer rate and amount of porphyrin from the donor monoolein vesicles to the acceptor MLV was higher than from monoolein cubic particles. This difference in the rate and amount transferred might be attributed to the sponge like structure of the cubic particles. In addition, the cubic bicontinuous phase has a unique structure with a high specific bilayer/water interfacial area. Additionally, transfer experiments are better than the conventional release methods from the point of similarity to the conditions in the blood. In conclusion, the centrifugation and flow cytometric techniques are suitable techniques to study the transfer from the donor monoolein dispersions to the lipophilic acceptor MLV.

Quantative Structure Activity Relationship analysis was performed using 30 various steroidal moieties with their IC50 value. The QSAR model was pIC50 = -0.01499 (+/-0.00582) +0.02256 (+/-0.00794) GATS5e -0.02574 (+/-0.00344) RDF120v -0.61334 (+/-0.00342) Ds with statistical information: SEE: 0.00581, r^2: 0.99977r^2 adjusted: 0.99973, F: 24389.67031 (DF: 3, 17). This model proposes that by expanding the Sanderson electro negativities and by diminishing the Radial dispersion capacity - 120/ weighted by relative van der Waals volumes and aggregate availability record/ weighted by relative I-state esteem it make a positive reaction. The outcomes from Golbraikh and Tropsha acceptable model was diagrammatized at Table: 6 which represent that Q^2: 0.99928, r^2: 0.99979, |r0^2-r'0^2|:0.0, k: 0.97936, [(r^2-r0^2)/r^2]:0.00004, k': 1.02084, [(r^2-'0^2)/r^2]: 0.00004 which also shown that the predictability of the model is quite high. Applicability domain was identified by Euclidean and Mahalanobis Distance Method. All the points were merely overlapped with observed and predicted IC50 value. So this developed QSAR model may work as a navigator for the prediction of newer generation steroidal molecule active through corticosteroid binding globulin receptor pathway.

Punjab Institute of Cardiology; sad demise of cardiac patients The demise of cardiac patients, registered to Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore, in various hospitals due to therapeutical and pharmaceutical error is a grim concern, needs to be addressed on priority. Initially; as per newspapers, there are two types of reports; use of expired or spurious drugs, supplied by the free pharmacy of the hospital that has been closed after the incidences, and Drugs Testing Laboratory’s reports rejecting the claim of expiry or spuriousness. Such conflicting reports necessitate a multi-level – clinical, medicine, pharmaceutical care and drug analysis - enquiry to avoid such grave prevalence in future because it is well documented that prescribing errors, dispensing errors and irrational use of drugs have killed more people than any disease. Thus; eventually a breakthrough occurred by a press conference on Wednesday, Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif revealed that Isotab tablets, which are meant for heart patients, had been contaminated with an anti-malarial chemical, which resulted in fatalities to patients who used it daily. The medicine was given free of cost to patients of the Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC). There were dangerous quantities of Pyrimethamine, in Isotab added by mistake during manufacturing process in industry [1]. Pyrimenthamine is also found in Fansidar, an antimalarial drug. That reduces folic acid, responsible for production of body and cell components in living organisms [2]. Isotab is given to heart patients twice daily to lessen the burden on their heart. The chemical found in Isotab, however, was equal to 10 tablets of Fansidar, which means those who used this medicine twice a day were effectively taking 20 tablets of Fansidar, which suppressed the bone marrow, disturbed blood production, and ultimately caused death. Isotab was not expect to be contaminated because it’s manufactured by Efroze Chemical Industries, who have around 80 registered medicines in Pakistan.

Quantative Structure Activity Relationship analysis was performed using 38 small molecules without any particular scaffold worked against small lung cancer cell line DMS 114. The QSAR model was pIC50 = 32.72228(+/-9.85895) +0.16592(+/-0.11717) ALogP -0.00745(+/-0.00466) AMR -3.74232(+/-1.26299) Mi +0.3363(+/-0.03428) RDF110m. Statistical information for that equation was SEE :0.81811, r^2 :0.8621, r^2 adjusted :0.83584, F :32.82184 (DF :4, 21) which suggested that AlogP (Ghose-Crippen LogKo/w), RDF110m (Radial distribution function - 100 / weighted by relative mass) create positive response and AMR (Molar refractivity), Mi (Mean ionization potentials (scaled on carbon atom)) create negative response towards PIC50 value. Then the model was validated through Golbraikh and Tropsha acceptable model criteria's as Q^2:0.77691 Passed (Threshold value Q^2>0.5),r^2: 0.61064 Passed (Threshold value r^2>0.6, |r0^2-r'0^2|: 0.11623 Passed with Threshold value |r0^2-r'0^2|<0.3). As well as the greater q2 value was suggested the model sustainability. Applicabilty domain was identified by Euclidean and Mahalanobis Distance Method. All the points were merely overlapped with observed and predicted IC50 value. So the developed QSAR model will work as a great predictor of its activity with any chemical scaffold.

Although there is presence of a dense network of the cerebral vasculature, systemic delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) is infective for greater than 98% of small molecules and for nearly 100% of large molecules. This is imputable to the presence of the blood brain barrier (BBB), which prevents most foreign substances, even many beneficial therapeutics, from getting into the psyche from the systemic circulation. Certain small molecules, peptide, and protein therapeutics given systematically reach the brain parenchyma by crossing BBB but high systemic doses are required to reach a therapeutic level that contributes to adverse effects in the physical structure. The BBB is a system of layers of cells at the cerebral capillary endothelium, the choroid plexus epithelium, and the arachnoid membranes, which are linked by tight junctions (zonulae occludens) and which together separate the mind and the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) from the line. These tight endothelial junctions can be 100 times tighter than junctions of other capillary endothelium. Therefore, the barrier has many attributes similar to a continuous cell membrane, allowing lipid soluble molecule transport across the membrane where hydrophilic solutes demonstrate minimal permeation. Different strategies have been developed to cross the BBB have been involved, such as synthesis of small molecules to exploit existing Carrier-Mediated Transport (CMT) or re-engineering large molecules with molecular ‘Trojan horse’ delivery systems. These approaches may allow transport via Receptor-Mediated Transfer (RMT) systems in the BBB. An alternative approach is targeted intranasal delivery, which is potentially applicable which covers broader area of molecules, where the goal is to circumvent, rather than cross, the BBB.

Original Research Article
Mohannad Idress, Mohammed Salim, Asia El-Hassan

This study is aimed at exploring the potential of developing naturally occurring L-glutaminase isolated from green chilies as anti-leukemic drug which selectively targets cancer cell metabolism unlike other non-selective chemotherapeutics. This was done by determination of its specific activity and optimum condition for L-glutaminase activity followed by partial purification and in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Activity of L-glutaminase was measured in the aqueous extract of fruits by Nesslerization method after homogenization in liquid nitrogen and extraction with 0.05 M sodium borate buffer (pH 8.5). Results showed that L-glutaminase activity per milligram of total protein was 18.7 U/mg. Optimum conditions for the catalytic activity of crude L-glutaminase extracted from chili fruits were studied. Results showed maximum activity of L-glutaminase was achieved when the enzyme was incubated with 250 mM of l-glutamine at 37°C for 30 minutes in the presence of phosphate buffered saline at pH 7.2. The maximum velocity (Vmax) and affinity constant (Km) of L-gutaminase were 14.1 mM and 90.2 mM respectively. Crude L-glutaminase was purified by salting out using seven different concentrations of ammonium sulfate ranging from 20% to 80% saturation. Specific activity of purified L-glutaminase was increased from 18.7 to 98.5 U/mg at when salted out in 50% ammonium sulfate solution. This result indicated the high efficiency of ammonium sulfate precipitation as purification technique. Assessment of anti-leukemic property was done by comparing the cytotixicity of L-glutaminase with doxorubicin and combination of them against THP-1 cell line by MTT assay. Results showed significant anti-cancer activity with inhibition percent of 72.75 % in case of combination of the enzyme with doxorubicin when compared to the enzyme alone (60.28%). These findings concluded that L-glutaminase of green chilies could be developed as anti-leukemic agent owing to its high content in chilies, ease of purification and signicant cytotoxicity against human monocytic leukemia cells.

The present study was aimed to investigate the phytochemistry and to determine the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of the two plants namely, Breynia disticha and Vernonia elaeagnifolia. Antimicrobial activity was determined using disk diffusion method whereas antioxidant activity was carried out using DPPH assay. Antimicrobial activity was absent in B. disticha whereas V. elaeagnifolia possessed antibacterial activity against P. mirabilis (9.0±0.2 mm) and antifungal activity against S. cerevisae (8.0±0.1 mm). Both plants possessed significant antioxidant activities (more than 90% scavenging) comparable to the standard drug BHT. The study proves that both plants have high medicinal value.

Famotidine (FMT) is known as a histamine blocker (H2) that inhibits stomach acid production and it is commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and gastric-esophageal reflux disease. It has a short half life (2.5-3.5 hours), low bioavailability (40-45%). It has excellent solubility in acidic pH just reverse in alkaline pH. Therefore an attempt has been made to develop raft buoyant gastro-retentive sustains release delivery system with in situ gelling property which is based on thixotropy behavior. Twelve formulations (Excluding two controlled formulations i.e. F and F*) were designed to contain 40 mg of FMT using Chitosan; CH (cationic polymer), Sodium Alginate; SA (anionic polymer), Gelucire 43/01; G 43/01 (lipid phase) as retardant and adhesive polymers. Emulgel was prepared and evaluated for their physicochemical properties like buoyancy and lag time, cumulative % drug release, drug release kinetics and drug excipient interaction studies by thermal studies and functional group characterization. All formulations showed that with the increase in concentration of the polymer, the gel strength increased, but the % drug release decreased F8>F12>F11>F6>F5>F10>F7>F9>F3>F4>F1>F2>F*>F. Formulations F9, F10, and F12 were found to be optimum. They followed the non-ficikian mechanism of drug release.

Original Research Article
Bhuwan Chandra Joshi, Minky Mukhija, Sushmita Semwal

Whole plant of Urtica dioica Linn. (Urticaceae) were subjected to extraction with different solvent according to polarity and further to obtain antioxidant rich extract. Different concentrations of different solvent extracts were subjected to antioxidant assay by DPPH, Nitric oxide NO scavenging method and Total phenolic contents. The IC50 values for different solvent extracts (Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ethanol) of Urtica dioica Linn.(UD) were found to be 215.96 ± 0.066, 78.99 ± 0.171, 168.24 ± 0.346 and 302.90 ± 0.141 respectively in comparison to L-Ascorbic acid as standard with IC50 values of 26.24 ± 0.193 respectively in DPPH model. In nitric oxide radical scavenging activity the IC50 values were found to be 172.38 ± 0.635, 101.39 ± 0.306, 141.23 ± 0.809, 202.26 ± 0.67 and 55.38 ± 0.56 for different extracts and L-Ascorbic acid respectively. The highest Total phenolic content was found to be 13.06 ± 0.15 mg GAE/g in ethyl acetate extract. However, the ethyl acetate extract showed a better free radical scavenging activity as compared to other extracts.

Background: Intravenous to oral switch of medication in clinically stable patients is a part of appropriate medication reconciliation process, which ensures lower cost and reduced hospital stay. Paracetamol injection use has been very frequent in hospital setting especially during emergency care.At Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital 7 Research Center (SKMCH&RC), an online restriction for paracetamol injection prescribing was introduced in Jun, 2014 to ensure parenteral use only in indicated cases. Aim: In this retrospective study, it was intended to evaluate the impact of online IV paracetamol restriction on consumption of parenteral paracetamol in the institute. Method:It was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Paracetamol injection consumption was observed for the year 2014 month-wise using hospital information system (HIS). Results:The number of paracetamol injections used before implementation of restriction was 11429 from Jan to Jun, 2014. After implementation of restriction, the number was reduced to 8219 in total from Jun, 2014 to Dec, 2014. There was a 28.1% decrease in the use of paracetamol injectable dosage form after implementation of the restriction. Rs. 321,000/- approx. were saved as a result of reduced consumption. Conclusion: Restriction of intravenous paracetamol prescribing is associated with reduced parenteral paracetamol prescribing and lower cost of therapy.

Original Research Article
Uzma Saleem, Bashir Ahmad

Objective: Thestudy objective was to find out the cause of non-compliance towards tuberculosis therapy in patients. Method:A self-designed questionnaire containing all the anticipated causes of non-compliance with anti-TB therapy and demographic information (age, gender) was prepared as study tool and tested by interviewing the patients. Results: The major cause of non-compliance towards DOTS is less awareness that adherence with therapy is very important for complete cure (34.38%). Other causes in descending order are as follows: big size of tablets (31.25 %), side effects of the drugs (18.75 %), and use of complementary and alternative medicines (15.62 %). Conclusion: Lack of patient’s awareness regarding complete adherence with DOTS therapy is one of the major cause of failure of giving T.B. free zone to the population. It is concluded that patients education regarding strict adherence with therapy is compulsory in order to control the epidemic of tuberculosis.

Original Research Article
Hani M. Hafez, Abdulla A. Elshanawany, Lobna M. Abdelaziz, Mustafa S. Mohram

Fluorometholone and Sodium Cromoglycate are used in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. A validated HPLC method was developed for the assay of them. The method was performed on BDS HYPERSIL C18 column (250x4.6 mm, 5µ) and the mobile phase consisted of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 4.5, 0.025M) - Acetonitrile (40:60, V/V) which pumped at a flow rate 1.0 ml/min at ambient temperature. 20 µl of drugs sample solutions were monitored at two fixed wavelengths (lambda = 240.0 nm for Sodium Cromoglycate and 330.0 nm for Fluorometholone). The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision and limits of detection and quantitation according to ICH.

Short communication
AishwaryaKoka, Umamaheswara Rao.

In global business portfolio pharmaceutical industry owes a significant position,according to new statistics thisprescription of drugs will grow from $950 billion to $1.2 trillion in 2016. Further healthcare has become one of the key priorities of world health sector.

Purpose. Previous studies have shown that Punica granatum (P. granatum) extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the aim of study was to formulate and determine the effectiveness of antimicrobial properties of gel containing P. granatum methanol extract against selected common skin pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Methods. Extraction process utilizes P. granatum peel and methanol as solvent. Using the disc diffusion method, different concentrations (25 %w/v, 50 %w/v, 75 %w/v and 100 %w/v) of P. granatum extract were initially tested against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans for their antibacterial activity. Gel formulations were then prepared with varying concentration of the extract as active ingredient. Antimicrobial activity of P. granatum gel was determined by using agar well diffusion method. The gel formulations were stored at 4°C, 25°C and 37°C for one month. Evaluation on the pH, physical characteristic and antimicrobial activity were then conducted on the gel formulations. Results. Both extract and gel showed highest antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis followed by S. aureus and then P. aeruginosa. Surprisingly no antifungal activity was observed against C. albicans. The concentration of extract alone and in gel were directly proportional to antibacterial activity. All gels formulated showed satisfactory physical characteristics even after a month of storage at different temperature. As expected, gel stored at 4°C showed the least decrease in antibacterial activity. Conclusions. P. granatum has potential to be formulated as gel to treat bacterial skin infection caused by S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Further studies are required in order to optimize the antimicrobial activity of P. granatum gel.

Original Research Article
Humera Khatoon, Sobia Javed, Sidra Jilani, Qurat-Ul-Ain Shams

Background: Osteoporosis is a disease that thins and weakens the bones to the limit that they become fragile and break easily. It is usually thought that osteoporosis is an unavoidable part of aging but good lifestyle habits can help us protect our bones and decrease our chance of getting osteoporosis. Since women are at greater risk of developing osteoporosis than men because of multiple reasons, the study was conducted to assess prevalence of risk factors among studied groups which can help guide early intervention. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the concern of bone health among females of Karachi and to analyze their dietary habits. Through this research, our principal outcome was to specify the forces which ultimately leads to the disrupt bone matters, determination of outcomes regarding female health and reduce burden of risks among them. Method: For this purpose a survey with questionnaire was scrutinized including a total sample size of 150, grouped into premenopausal and postmenopausal females. Interviews were conducted regarding their dietary pattern, drug history and Bone Mineral Density test (BMD) histories. Results: The datashowed that 86% of the participants were not even aware of BMD test and its significance while only 14% of participants were aware of BMD test but none of them had it done in their whole life. Results also showed that frequency of taking calcium supplements, milk or other dairy products is very low among studied groups whereas soft drink, caffeinated products and chocolate are consumed as their routine diet. Conclusion: It is concluded that the females of Karachi mostly are not concerned about their bone health and bone related issues.

Original Research Article
Sadia Zafar, Faaiza Qazi, Nusrat Bano, Rabia Sheikh

Background: There are different types of medication errors which are experienced by the pharmacists in hospital settings. In Pakistan number of attending Pharmacist per bed is low and is a major cause of fatal and life threatening events. Aim: The aim of present retrospective study was to assess the extent and type of medication error in inpatient medical charts. Method: The physician’s orders were analyzed by the clinical pharmacists in hospital setting during 2007-2008 in different wards. Various types of prescription errors had been reported and expressed in percentages. Result:Out of 450 medical treatment charts, 381 medication errors were found in 350 charts. The highest rate of error was the wrong dose (25%) prescribed by physicians.Infrequent errors were lack of dosage frequency, protocol for treatment, dosage form and continuation of antibiotic after prescribed treatment days. However, most frequently occurring serious errors were wrong dosing frequency (17%) and no dose adjustment according to creatinine clearance (12.8%).3.41% errors were related to directions for use of medicines. Conclusion:Our study has demonstrated large number of prescription errors and high proportion of themwere of serious nature therefore careful counter checking of medical charts is suggested.

Tuberculosis is one of the major problems in developing countries. Can be treated but due to poor management of MDR-TB and multi-emerging now days. Nishtar Hospital Multan is one of the largest hospitals in South Asia. The purpose of this study was to point out the flaws in the case of treatment of tuberculosis, directly observed therapy and patient compliance, and tuberculosis. The study was conducted by researchers who have been associated with doctors and participants in the search, and when he visited the behavior in the hospital. And summarizes the data through the use of statistical data. 275 total cases that visited the hospital and participated in the study. Studies have shown that TB treatment under the direct supervision does not work, because it is defined by the World Health Organization. Significant improvements are possible in tuberculosis directly observed therapy in Nishtar Hospital. Tuberculosis level operating directly observed treatment, patient education, and preventive measures and providing skilled workers, and improve the process of patient care.

Original Research Article
Mani Rupeshkumar, Kunchu Kavitha, Pallab Kanti Haldar

The present study aims to study the hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Andrographis echioides (MEAE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Hyperglycemia was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg bodyweight). Three days after STZ induction, the hyperglycemic rats were treated with MEAE orally at the doses of 200, 500, and 800 mg/kg body weight daily for 21 days. Glibenclamide (1 mg/kg, orally) was used as reference drug. The fasting blood glucose levels were measured on each 7th day during the 21 days of treatment. Serum biochemical parameters including lipid content were estimated. MEAE at the doses of 200, 500 and 800 mg/kg orally significantly (P < 0.01) and dose dependently reduced and normalized blood glucose levels as compared to that of STZ control group; the dose 800 mg/kg being the most potent showing complete normalization of blood glucose levels. Serum biochemical parameters including lipid profile were significantly (P < 0.01) restored toward normal levels in MEAE-treated rats as compared to STZ control animals. This study concludes that Andrographis echioides demonstrated promising hypoglycemic action in STZ-induced diabetic rats substantiating its ethno medicinal use.

EchinopsechinatusRoxb. is a traditional plant that use medically traditional prescribing system. E. echinatus found in different in regions of Pakistan and India. Different evaluation methods are wereuse to know the phytochemical and pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, Diuretic, analgesic, anti fertility of the plant. The aim of this review to summarized the works on E. echinatus.It is concluded that besides of in-vivo studies, it also need to check the in-vitro studies of the plant. This miracle plant also need to more explore and discussion.

Background: Knowledge, awareness is the greatest weapon in the fight against diabetes mellitus. It can help the people understand the risk of diabetes, motivate them to seek proper treatment and care, and prepare them to keep the disease under control. Objective: To assess the overview about glycemic control knowledge, attitude and awareness among the T2 DM male patients towards Diabetes. Methods: Single center cross sectional, retrospective cum prospective study conducted at Aseer diabetic center, Abha, from July, 2012 to October 2013 to assess the glycemic control knowledge, attitude and awareness. Results: In this current study only 15.12% of patients and had awareness about their type of DM, and 35.12% of patients had knowledge about DM. As a the therapeutic outcome the patients had an average HbA1c value of 9.17(±1.68) % and BMI of 28.52(±5.00) kg/m2. Conclusion: Present study outcomes indicate that the improvement in diabetic patients knowledge, awareness and attitude about the disease can do productive changes in the gylcemic control.

The crude meoh extracts of six medicinal plants of bangladesh (ipomoea paniculata, withania somnifera, mikania cordata, abroma augusta, bombax ceiba, and oxalis corniculata) were screened for primary types of phytochemicals presence and in-vitro anti-oxidant activity by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl-hydrate (dpph) free radical scavenging assay. Of all of them, the meoh extracts of the leaves of withania somnifera and oxalis corniculata showed strong antioxidant activity (ic50:27.8 and 19.98 ?g/ml), while the meoh extracts of ipomoea paniculata, abroma augusta and bombax ceiba showed moderate activity (ic50: 86.48, 101.4 and 58.6 ?g/ml, respectively). Moreover, mild anti-oxidant activity was observed with the meoh extract of mikania cordata (ic50 > 300 ?g/ml).

Hepatic functions dependency on thyroid hormones has been reported in many past studies. Momentous change in physiology and chemistry of thyroid gland not only affects the glandular function but also profoundly impinge working of liver markers causing hepatic dysfunction. Consequently, in order to give better response for thyroid diseases, the efficiency of thyroid drug is also calculated in persuading liver markers towards standard ranges which previously have been disturbed due to thyroid invasion. The current study was aimed with the intent to find effect of thyroid drugs on liver markers in Pakistani thyroid population from Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Punjab. Patients of hyper and hypothyroidism on thyroid drugs were recruited in the study and their thyroid and liver profiles were compared with controlled population. Carbimazole and propylthiouracil were administered to hyperthyroid patients and hypothyroid patients were given levothyroxine. The data was analyzed statistically based on p-values for parameters such as triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Potential results were obtained for all parameters with carbimazole and propylthiouracil but only thyroxine and alanine aminotrasferase were stabilized with levothyroxine. So, we suggest use of adjunctive therapy with levothyroxine to be prescribed in hypothyroidism.

Original Research Article
Manoj Kumar Sarangi, Dr. K.A Chowdary, Ankush Sundriyal

In the present study Paracetamol and Tizanidine were considered as the model drugs for development of bilayer tablets. Paracetamol with the dose 600mg/tablet was considered under the matrix layer and Tizanidine with the dose 2mg/tablet was considered under immediate release layer. The polymers like HPMC (Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose) K100 & K4 grades, guar gum are used for development of matrix layer. The calibration curve for Paracetamol was plotted by using UV spectroscope at an absorbance of 280 nm as per the method developed by glenmak pharmaceutical ltd. The calibration curve for Tizanidine was plotted by using HPLC at an absorbance of 230nm. The physicochemical parameters of both the matrix tablets of Paracetamol as well as bilayer tablets were carried out. The formulation of sustained release layer was optimized with respect to their dissolution parameters. The dissolution of the bilayer tablets were carried out in 0.1N HCl. The optimized batches showing a release rate more than 90% were considered for development of bilayer tablets. The pharmacokinetic parameters for both the matrix layer formulations of Paracetamol as well as bilayer tablets were conducted with zero order, first order, higuchi and korsemeyer patterns. The optimized formulations were found to be following zero order release kinetics. The accelerated stability study of the optimized formulations (matrix layer and bilayer tablets) were conducted for three months at the conditions of 40oc/75%RH and found to be stable. The FTIR study was conducted for determining drug polymer interaction.

Original Research Article
Foo Rui Qing, Manogaran Elumalai, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah

In this study, the ethanol extract (EE), ethyl acetate extract (EAE), aqueous decoction extract (ADE) and aqueous maceration extract (AME) of Vernonia amygdalina leaves were subjected to total phenolic (TP) and total saponin (TS) content determination, in vitro radical scavenging activity and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The TP contents in order of decreasing quantities were 63.044, 38.834, 53.148 and 39.391 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per g dry extract for EE, EAE, ADE and AME, respectively. The TS assay revealed that the EAE extract possessed the highest TS content with a value of 952.037 mg of diosgenin equivalents (DE) per g dry extract. This was followed by the EE, ADE and AME extract with TS content of 841.370, 159.741 and 118.444 mg diosgenin equivalents (DE) per gram dry extract. The DPPH assay revealed that the ADE had the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 501.207 µg/ml. This was followed by EE, EAE and AME with IC50 values of 636.010, 658.277 and 1368.929 µg/ml, respectively. The ADE also exhibited the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 3195.083 µg/ml. In the subsequent order of decreasing ABTS scavenging activity was AME, EE and EAE extracts with IC50 values of 4142.156, 5508.517 and 6547.940 µg/ml. The results of AST showed that the test organisms E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica were resistant towards the V. amygdalina extracts tested. Only the AME extract possesses a MIC value of 31.25 mg/ml against Y. enterocolitica. The data obtained reaffirms V. amygdalina’ spontential as a source of dietary antioxidants and provides information on the the suitability of V. amygdalina against E. c.oli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica.

Immediate release tablet of Metformin HCl needs to formulate for emergency treatment of type-II diabetes. The prime objective of the present research was to formulate immediate release tablet of Metformin HCL for rapid action by using Sodium starch glycolate, Collidon CL and Crosscarmellose Na as super disintegrants.Wet granulationmethod was adapted for the tablet preparation, maize starch used as a diluent, Povidone k-30 as a binder, sodium starch glycolate, collidon CL and crosscarmellose Na as super disintegrants in different concentration (2-5%). Aerosol -200 to provide proper flow characteristics and magnesium stearate as a lubricant. Total nine formations were prepared and evaluated for hardness, thickness, diameter, friability, weight variation, disintegration time and in-vitro drug release. All the formulations were compared for disintegration time and % drug release. All formulations are evaluated for pre-compression and post-compression parameters. The result obtained showed that the selected batch of tablet formulations containing sodium starch glycolate provides a short DT between 40 to 22 seconds, with sufficient crushing strength and acceptable friability.

Thyroid hormones significantly influence the proper growth, development and performance of kidney, and, in case of hormonal imbalance, kidney function is adversely affected. Many studies have been done on thyroid medication to identify their effectiveness in hyper and hypothyroidism, but the true efficacy of thyroid drug should also be acquainted with their capability in normalizing abnormal renal profiles. The present study was based on identifying the effectiveness of routinely used thyroid drugs in Punjab, Pakistan to distinguish their role in renal dysfunction due to thyroid ailment. Patients of hyper and hypothyroidism were included in this study along with normal subjects as control. Hyperthyroid patients were administered carbimazole and propylthiouracil while hypothyroid patients were given thyroxine. The renal profiles of patients were compared with profiles of normal subjects and results were statistically analyzed by using analysis of variance test to identify significance or insignificance of results based on p-values. Results were found to be more promising with all drugs for creatinine and uric acid while no reversal of altered blood urea and blood urea nitrogen was observed. We conclude that although thyroid drugs reverse some of abnormal renal parameters but adjunctive therapy should be recommended to mask associated risks of renal ailment with thyroid disorder.

Original Research Article
Minky Mukhija, Ajudhia Nath Kalia

In recent years much attention has been devoted to natural antioxidant and their association with health benefits. Plants are the potential source of natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity (in vitro) of four extracts from stem bark of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. and to determine phenolic content of all extracts. The best antioxidant potential and phenolic content were found in Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extract. Comparative antioxidant potential was evaluated using DPPH, Nitric Oxide scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. Estimation of the total phenolic content was performed using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method. Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extract gave an IC50 of 85.16±1.05, 72.39±1.53 and 99.25±2.53, 94.81±2.56 for DPPH and Nitric oxide scavenging activities respectively. The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed good reducing power with increasing concentration. Both extracts also gave the maximum percentage of phenolic content (equivalent to that of gallic acid) when compared to other extracts. All the antioxidant assays and phenolic content estimation studies revealed that petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts were the most promising and significant extract among petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts.

Original Research Article
Hani M.Hafez, Abdullah A. Elshanawane, Lobna M. Abdelaziz, Mustafa S. Mohram

Brimonidine Tartrate and Timolol Maleate are used in treatment of glaucoma by decreasing intra ocular pressure. A Validated HPLC method was developed for the assay of them. The method was performed on BDS HYPERSIL Cyano column (250x4.6 mm, 5µ) and the mobile phase consisted of Ammonium acetate (pH 5.0, 0.01M) - Methanol (40:60, V/V) which pumped at a flow rate equals to 1.5 ml/min at ambient temperature. 20 µl of drugs sample solutions were monitored at two fixed wavelengths (lambda = 254.0 nm for Brimonidine Tartrate and 300.0 nm for Timolol Maleate). The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision and limits of detection and quantitation according to ICH.

This study has been concerned with determining the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil extracted from R. officinalis leaves grown in Ethiopia. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and yielded clear and intense yellow brownish 1.1% (w/w) oil with pleasant smell. The oil was analyzed by GC/MS and resulted in the identification of 43 compounds, representing 100% of the total oil. The major components of R. officinalis oil were 1, 8-cineole (23.55%), verbenone (18.89%), camphor (15.06%), a-terpineol (6.43%), isoborneol (5.68%), tridecyl acrylate (5.57%), linalool (3.71%), bornyl acetate (3.57%), trans-caryophyllene (3.36%), terpine-4-ol (2.78%) and a-pinene (1.40%). In vitro antimicrobial activities of the essential oil of R. officinalis was determined by paper disk diffusion method and showed moderate antimicrobial activity in both 10 and 20 µL concentrations. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test bacterial strain where as Apergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum were selected as test fungi. The presence of monoterpene and oxygenated monoterpene as the major constituents of the essential oil could be responsible for the moderate antimicrobial activity in this study. The results of this study showed some differences in the antimicrobial activities and chemical composition of the essential oil when compared with similar studies conducted in other countries.

This study deals with evaluation of acetylcholinesterase activity of Liquidambar styraciflua aerial parts methanol 80% extract and identification of the bio-active phytoconstituents of the extract. The acetylcholinesterase inhibition was detected by Ellman’s method and the methanol extract was subjected for phytochemical analysis. The extract of L. styraciflua has shown (IC50 = 0.070 mg/mL), with a similar activity to neostigmine (IC50 = 1.87 µg/mL) and galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x10–3 mg/mL) which are the most effective compounds in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Phytochemical investigation of methanol extract of L. styraciflua revealed the presence of triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrates and chromatographic separation and fractionation of methanol extract of L. styraciflua resulted in the isolation of ß-sitosterol, lupeol, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, luteolin, orientin, isoorientin, kaempferol 3-O-a-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-ß-glucoside. These results suggest that methanol extract of L. styraciflua is a good natural source for acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.

The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the methanolic extract of Conocarpus lancifolius Engl. aerial parts using disk diffusion method. The bacteria tested included Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsella pneumonia whereas the fungal strains tested included Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisae. Antibacterial activity was found to be present in four species being highest in K. pneumonia (11mm). Zones of inhibition for B. cereus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa were 9, 8 and 8 respectively. Antifungal activity was found only in S. cerevisae where the zone was recorded to be 7mm. Results show plants to possess antibacterial and antifungal activities.

The present study was designed to explore antifertility efficacy of Achyranthes aspera in male rats and to study different reproductive parameters related to male reproduction after in vivo exposure to understand the possible mechanism involved in it. Male rats were exposed to Achyranthes aspera hydroethanolic extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 60 days. Histological studies revealed that Achyranthes aspera hydroethanolic extract caused degeneration of Leydig cells, spermatogenic disruption and shrinkage of seminiferous tubules in the testis. Seminal vesicle and prostate secretions were blocked and comparatively less population of spermatozoa were seen in the lumen of epididymis. The serum testosterone level reduced significantly. The implantation sites in female rats were drastically reduced after treated males were mated with normal cyclic females. The level of non-enzymic and enzymic antioxidants like GSH, catalase, SOD, GPx, GR and GST were significantly lowered. Toxicity studies showed very minimal or no significant changes in the level of serum AST, ALT and creatinine of liver and kidney. It can be concluded that infertility in male rats could be due to impairment of reproductive performance as indicated by reproductive tract lesions, reduction in the level of testosterone and decrement in the levels of antioxidant enzymes.

Background: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF), a tick-borne disease has been in the news with reports of its outbreak in Pakistan. Pakistan is considered as an endemic country for CCHF during last two decades . Humans get this infection after a bite of an infected tick or from one infected human to another by contact with infectious blood or body fluids. Aim: To assess the level of knowledge regarding Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) among the local residence of Karachi, Pakistan. Method: This questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted among the local residence of Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaire was composed of 20 questions. The questionnaire included demographic information with their designation and knowledge level regarding sources, transmission, symptoms, prevention and treatment of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF). Result: A total of 150 respondents interviewed in the survey. Sufficient knowledge about CCHF was not found in (23%) of the respondent participants. Literate individuals (71%) were relatively better knowledge about CCHF as compared to the illiterate people (29%). Television and internet (50%) were considered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease. Conclusion: This study revealed that the knowledge level of Karachi citizens about CCHF was insufficient. The need to educate the public about CCHF and the ticks is at an alarming level. As this disease can cause fatalities if the general community are not be informed and trained adequately. TV/radio broadcasts may be sufficient for the general public, but specialized educational programs and workshops are recommended for health workers and veterinary staffs.

Methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be defined as a strain of S. aureus that gained resistance to a large group of beta-lactam antibiotics, which include penicillin and cephalosporin [1]. MRSA is an opportunistic pathogens and it is most common in infecting immune-compromised patients. The worldwide emergence of MRSA is caused by extensive use of antibiotics in the past few decades. Nowadays, MRSA infection is no longer confined to nosocomial infection, but also appears in healthy people in the community with no established risk factor [2]. The recent emergence community acquired MRSA is mainly involving skin and soft tissue infection [3]. MRSA is specially troublesome in hospitals and nursing homes, where patients with weakened immune system are at greater risk on these multi-drug resistant bacterial strains [4]. Topical applications of antibiotics are the most important component of wound infection therapy [5]. Alternative therapies are being sought for treatment of MRSA and one area of interest is the uses of extracts from natural sources. This study was aimed to evaluate in vivo anti-MRSA activity for the dermal administration of dichloromethane extract of P. minioluteum ED24, an endophytic fungus previously isolated from medicinal herb, O. stamineus. To the best of our knowledge, no scientific evaluation of the therapeutic potentials of this endophytic fungus has been done. Hence this study is very important to evaluate the pharmaceutical potential of this endophytic fungus.

Original Research Article
Nebal Betari, Samer Haidar

Sitagliptin is relatively new hypoglycemic agent. Several generic products are available in the Middle East. However, their pharmaceutical quality which affect safety and efficacy is unknown. Hence, prescribing of some generic products may lead to serious consequences. Januvia tablets were used as reference to determine the quality of five commercial brands of Sitagliptin selected from different Middle East commercial brands. Weight variations, content uniformity, friability, disintegration and dissolution profile were compared. All tested generics of Sitagliptin were complied with the specific requirements for quality control tests of the United State Pharmacopeia 31, whereas the result of two product were not similar to Januvia in dissolution profile, no significant differences in the results of weight variations, content uniformity, friability, disintegration. Differences in dissolution profile are due to the differences in formulations so It can be assumed that most of Sitagliptin generic products are as therapeutically effective as Januvia.

Original Research Article
Anila Naz, Rahila Najam, Bushra Riaz, Arsalan Ahmed

Bevacizumab targets Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Bevacizumab specifically binds to the VEGF-A protein, thereby inhibiting the process of angiogenesis.Thrombosis and hypertension are the major systemic side effects of bevacizumab.As thrombosis and hypertension are the major systemic side effects of bevacizumab whether this drug couldpredispose a patient to thrombosis or not after intravitreal administration, as it is absorbed even through intravitreal administration. We determined the safety of the drug.This study was conducted at Al Ibrahim eye hospital for 3months. The drug wasintravitrealy administered by Professor Dr.P.S.Mahar.For this 10 patients were administered three doses of intravitrealbevacizumab at monthlyinterval and followed for chronic effects of drug. Blood samples were taken to determine fibrinogen level, platelet count,prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) andsodium level by kit method. Blood pressure was also monitored of all the patients before and after the drug administration.There has been significant decrease seen in fibrinogen level. Non-significant rise in the PT.Platelet counts decrease insignificantly. Slight increase is noted in sodium level.Slight increase is noted in diastolic blood pressure where as systolic blood pressure is insignificantly increased.Thus results of our study indicate that there may be bleeding tendency after bevacizumab so careful monitoring is required in patients receiving this drug, as well as monitoring of blood pressure is required.

A simple, precise and novel reverse phase liquid chromatographic method for analysis of doxofylline in bulk drug as well as in pharmaceutical preparations in the presence of potential degradation products of doxofylline has been developed and validated. Forced degradation studies were carried on doxofylline in acidic, neutral and alkaline hydrolytic conditions in addition to oxidative, thermal and photolytic conditions. Optimum separation among doxofylline and its degradation products was achieved using a ternary mixture of water: methanol: ethyl acetate in the ratio of 80:10: 10 % v/v/v as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min on a Supelco C18 DB 150 mm X 4.6 mm column as the stationary phase when scanned at a wavelength of 277 nm. The retention time for the various degradation products were found to be sufficiently different with each other as well as with the parent drug at the optimized chromatographic conditions to permit their accurate quantitative estimation. The method was found to be linear at least in the range of 5-25 µg/ml. The developed method was then validated for precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness and ruggedness in accordance with the ICH guidelines and other available regulatory guidelines.

We aimed this study to develop simple and economic UV spectrophotometric method for estimation of Tramadol Hydrochloride in bulk and tablet dosage form and validate as per ICH guidelines. Method involved Absorbance maxima method which based on the measurement of absorbance of Tramadol Hydrochloride in methanol: water (60:40 % v/v) at?max of 271 nm. The developed method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, LOD and LOQ as per ICH guidelines. Theproposed method was found to be linear within the conc. range of 30-150µg/ml for Tramadol Hydrochloride. The present methods were found to be simple, linear, precise, accurate and sensitive and can be used for routine quality control analysis for the estimation of Tramadol Hydrochloridein bulk and tablet dosage form.

Pharmacotherapeutical complications are health hazardous and matter great importance. Thus its essential to evaluate the possible drug related risks while prescribing the life saving drugs in clinical practice (patients of different age, indication, history and profile). The admission note and diagnostic laboratory information of patients have been examined for ADRs (adverse drug reactions), non- compliance, inappropriate dose and drug-drug interactions. A total 60 patients were studied for any possible therapeutical problems. The results obtained demands the services of professional pharmacist to deliver valuable pharmaceutical care in Khyber Teaching Hospital at basic (bottom) level to minimize the clinical errors. Counselling of the patient regarding the use of medication is another need to attain maximum drug compliance. Moreover training programmes for medical and supporting staff should also be under an established satellite pharmacy to avoid prevailing clinical complications in health system.

Adverse drugs reactions (ADRs) are known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, only a very little proportion is reported. ADRs contribute to the incidence of adverse events, resulting in increased health care costs. An increase in the number and quality of reports by improving ADR reporting system in hospitals, highlight the importance of ADR including general awareness could improve patient outcome and save healthcare costs. Ministry of Health has done some work but still major requirements are needed to run a proper ADR program. The first part of this project was to review the ADR reporting system in Pakistan hospitals, to determine the factors contributing to the ADR reporting rate and benchmark with developed countries. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. The response rate was 83.3%. 24 (80%) hospitals have no proper ADR system; five (16.7%) hospitals are targeting few of the drugs for ADR reporting while only one (3.3%) hospital has a proper ADR policy including online reporting system as well. Only seven (23.3%) hospitals have a policy of ADR reporting which is running under Pharmacy Department. The next part of the project was a survey of 84doctors and 52 Pharmacist selected from Lahore city, Pakistan to evaluate their involvement, understanding and reasons for reporting ADRs. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Response rate obtained for the doctors was (39.3% n=33) and (67.3% n=35) for hospital pharmacists. Thirty three (39.3%) doctors and thirty four (65.4%) pharmacists knew how to report ADR within the hospital while 9 (10.7%) doctors and 13 (25%) Pharmacists knew about the ADR reporting to MOH. Factors that would encourage respondents to report ADRs included seriousness of reaction (75.8%), unusual reaction (63.6%), reaction to a new product (66.6%) and confidence in the diagnosis of ADR (31.5%). Similarly, the discouraging factors are uncertain association (65.7%), awareness (57.6%), and concern about legal liability (51.4%). It is observed that awareness of ADRs program need special attention with some concrete steps should be taken for the improvement of ADRs system in Pakistan. Continuous medical education, training and integration of ADR reporting into the clinical activities would definitely improve the patient outcome.

Purpose: To synthesise, charecterise phenyl hydrazones namely, {4-[3-methyl-5-oxo-4-(phenyl hydrazono)-4,5-dihydro-pyrazol-1-yl]-phenoxy}-acetic acid N|-(4-substituted-thiazole-2-yl)-hydrazide VII and to evaluate the antibacrial activity. Methods: The synthesis of title compounds has been schemed elaborately and the structures of the compounds were established by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectra. The antibacterial activity of the title compounds were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus NCCS 2079 and Bacillus cereus NCCS 2106, Escherichia coli NCCS 265 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCCS 2200 and antifungal activity evaluated against Aspergillus niger NCCS 1196, Candida albicans NCCS 2106 by disk diffusion method. Results: The screened data reveal that the studied phenyl hydrazones under study exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against all the tested microbes. The antimicrobial activity of title compounds were compared with that of standadards. The title compounds with p-nitrophenyl, p-chlorophenyl, p-bromophenyl were more active agaist bacteria, where as the compounds with substituents namely phenyl, p-tolyl, p-anisyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, p-nitrophenyl were more active against fungi than the other compounds under investigation. Conclusion: Among the ten novel phenyl hydrazones synthesised {4-[3-methyl-5-oxo-4-(phenyl hydrazono)-4,5-dihydro-pyrazol-1-yl]-phenoxy}-acetic acid N|-(4-(4-nitro-phenyl)-thiazole-2-yl)-hydrazide was found the most active than the others. The other compounds demonstrated moderate activity against the tested microorganisms.

Original Research Article
Rabia Tariq, Sadia Huma, Marriam Zaka Butt, Fatima Amin

Breast cancer in women causes psychological and physical distress. It is the most commonly diagnosed female cancer in all cancers. Breast cancer is among the top 20 causes of deaths in Pakistan. It is believed that various factors such as gender, age, socioeconomic status, family history, physical activity, smoking, breastfeeding/lactation, no. of full term and incomplete pregnancies, hormonal and reproductive factors influence the incidence of breast cancer. A prospective as well as retrospective study was conducted on 100 patients in different hospitals of Lahore, aiming to evaluate risk factors leading to high prevalence of breast cancer in women. A questionnaire was designed to obtain patient history, patient complaint and management regarding disease. Females of all age groups were included in the study. The data collected was analyzed and presented in the form of graphs and tables. The results were derived and conclusion presented. Women with advanced age, having middle class family background, higher body mass index and a high ratio of incomplete pregnancies were at significantly increased risk of breast cancer. Obesity and the use of oral contraceptives are minor whereas family history, employment status, physical activity and smoking don’t serve as risk factors. The protective role of breastfeeding/lactation and full term pregnancies is suppressed and not very significant.

Short communication
Bint-e-Haider, Muhammad Qaiser, Hafsa Faizi

Some of the new 10H phenothiazine derivatives had been synthesized for their anti psychotic activity as dopamine antagonists. They had been synthesized with the help of software Marvin sketch. 10 parameters were analyzed for each of them which could make them drug like molecule. All parameters were found to be within range. Newly designed structures justify all the aspects of anti psychotic activity by satisfying Lipinski’s Rule. Three carbon distance from two amine atoms keeps the polar surface area within range (>10). Log P value and conformational energy of these derivatives shows that they are structurally constrained molecules. They have also satisfied the stereo chemistry and hence safer derivatives. The limit for total numbers of atoms and H-bond donor and Acceptor are also seem to be fulfilled. So these derivatives have maximum chances that they could be drug like molecules which may have valuable anti psychotic activity. They could be investigated further for clinical use in conditions like schizophrenia, mania and other psychotic disorders.

Review Article
A.B. M. Helal Uddin, Reem S. Khalid, Umeed A. Khan and S. A. Abbas

Traditional medicine (TM) has been used since ages, during the past few decades there was a notable global increase in TM usage. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) around 70% of world population relies on traditional healing system for their basic health care needs. The broad use of TM has highlighted many issues subjected to the efficacy and safety of such products. Some TM products contain toxic materials such as heavy metals. Exposure to heavy metals such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) can cause adverse health effects and toxicity. This article explains, several possibilities for the presence of heavy metals in TM, the toxicity of some heavy metals and a number of reported clinical cases regarding to heavy metals toxicity due to the consumption of TM products from different parts of the world.

Background: Derivative spectroscopy provides a greater selectivity and spectral discrimination than common spectroscopy. It is the dominant approach for resolution of one analyte whose peak is hidden by a large overlapping peak of another analyte in multi component analysis. Hence, this technique we have been successfully applied for simultaneous quantification of lornoxicam and paracetamol in combined tablets. Materials and Methods: The method is based on the derivative spectrophotometric method at zero-crossing wavelengths. Two wavelengths 347 nm (zero crossing point for paracetamol) and 272.5nm (zero crossing point for lornoxicam) were selected for the quantification of lornoxicam and paracetamol respectively, using 0.01 M sodium hydroxide as solvent and Shimadzu (Japan) UV-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-1800) instrument. Results: The first derivative amplitude-concentration plots were rectilinear over the range of 2-22 µg/mL and 1-75 µg/mL with detection limits of 0.06 and 0.08 µg/mL and quantification limits of 0.2 and 0.26 µg/mL for lornoxicam and paracetamol respectively. The proposed method was statistically validated as per ICH guidelines. The percentage recovery was within the range between 97-101 and % relative standard deviation for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2. Conclusion: The proposed method was effectively applied to routine quality control analysis of studied drugs in their tablet formulations.

Original Research Article
Ghulam Jilany Khan, Muhammad Ovais Omer, Muhammad Ashraf, ...

Angiogenesis, which is the development of blood vessels from previously existing vessels, is a physiological process. It is a common and most important process in the formation and development of blood vessels, so it is supportive in healing of wound and granulation tissue. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of pomegranate whole fruit extract on angiogenesis by using CAM assay and to verify either the extract is angiogenic or anti-angiogenic. To explore the effect on angiogenesis we used CAM model which is an extra-embryonic membrane model in Chicken embryos and SPIP (scanning probe image processor) for quantification of resultant images. For this study fertilized eggs were collected from a local hatchery in Lahore and different aqueous dilutions of whole fruit extract were applied on developing CAM on day 6. A noticeable reduction in surface roughness of the blood vessels was observed. The diameter of tertiary, secondary and primary blood vessels was also reduced as compared to the blood vessels of control group CAM. The maximum effect was seen with 0.5% dilution. The study proved that Punica granatum (Pomegranate) fruit extract was anti-angiogenic and can be included in the studies for the development of new drug studies to treat cancer (as an anti angiogenic agent).

Original Research Article
Maliki Reddy Dastagiri Reddy, Aluru Raghavendra Guru Prasad, ...

Purpose: To synthesize novel series of compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole and pyrazole-3-one moieties in good yields and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of title compounds. Methods: Title compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectra and evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against certain selected gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and fungi by disk diffusion method and broth dilution method. Results: Fluoro, chloro, bromo, nitro, morphonilyl, piperizynyl, N-methylpiperizine substituted compounds (VII c, d, e, f, i, j and k) showed more antimicrobial activity against than other compounds of the series. Conclusion: Antimicrobial activity was expressed as the corresponding minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The compounds have demonstrated considerable antibacterial and antifungal activities.

Purpose: In this present work a simple, rapid, specific and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed and validated for the quantification of tapentadol HCl bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms and proposed method was also applied to study of forced degradation and in-vitro dissolution studies. Materials and Methods: The fluorescence intensity of tapentadol HCl in distilled water was measured at emission wavelength 592 nm after excitation at 272 nm by using a Shimadzu (Japan) RF-5301 PC spectrofluorophotometer. A linear relationship was found between fluorescence intensity and concentration in the range of 1-6 µg/mL with a good correlation coefficient – 0.999. Results: The detection and quantification limits were found to be 23.01 and 76.72 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied for quantification of tapentadol HCl in tablets, with percentage recovery of 99.95–101.45% and percentage RSD values were found to be less than 2 for accuracy and precision studies. Statistical analysis of the results revealed high accuracy and good precision. Conclusion: The suggested procedures could be used for the determination of tapentadol HCl in drug substance and drug products as well as in presence of its degradation products.

Original Research Article
M. Sreedevi Meesaraganda, Raghavendra Guru Prasad Aluru, ..

Seven novel arylazo imidazoles were synthesized and structures have been elucidated on the basis of elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectral data. Antibacterial activity studies was done against two gram positive bacteria (S. aureus, P.aeruginosa,) and two gram negative bacteria (E.coli and B.subtili), while antifungal activity studies was done against C.albicans and A.nigerz. Minimum inhibitory concentration was found out by Serial dilution method. Antibacterial and antifungal activity studies of the title compounds (IIIa-IIIe) was compared with standards namely Furacin and Flucanazole. All the synthesized arylazo imidazoles have shown significant activity against the tested microbes. The compounds IIIb, IIIc and IIId exhibit relatively higher activity than the standards.

Purpose: The main objective of the present research study is to synthesize series of novel 4,8-disubstituted disubstituted-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-imidazo[1,5-b][1,2,4]triazin-2(8H)-one derivatives (5a-5f) and evaluate them for their antioxidant effect. Methods: The said compounds were synthesized in total three steps viz Earlenmeyer-Azlactone synthesis, followed by reaction with substituted and unsubstituted 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and lastly reaction with chloracetamide. In vitro antioxidant study was performed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay using various concentrations such as 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 µg/mL. Synthesis of compounds was confirmed by melting point, HPTLC, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and LC-MS. The obtained results (IC50 values) were compared with standard antioxidant agent ascorbic acid. Results: The IC50 values were compared with standard antioxidant ascorbic acid. Compound 5a, 5b and 5c showed very higher significant activity (p<0.01), 5d showed significant activity while compound 5e and 5f showed marginally significant activity. Conclusion: Compounds bearing electron donating group showed higher antioxidant effect as compared to the compounds with electron withdrawing groups.

Review Article
Uzma Saleem, Bashir Ahmad, Khalid Hussain, Alia Erum

Depression is a disorder in which a person is unfit physically and mentally. WHO stated it is the fourth major cause of passing disable life. It reduces individual’s productive life and leads to premature mortality. From last 20 years a great research has been done to find relationship between life stress and depression. Stress is not the sole causative factor, but genetic as well as biological changes in the depressed individual play important role in the onset of depression. Other predisposing factors for depression include childhood stress such as by ignorance by family, early loss of parents, physical or sexual abuse, no social support, financial loss etc. Stressful life events can lead to depression has been explored by many researchers and concluded that stressful life-events can arouse or trigger depression episodes in susceptible individuals.

The present study was carried out to record and report the phtototoxic effect of Suaeda fruticosa extract on germination of Abelmoschus esculentus and Brassica oleracea. Sueda fruticosa is an evergreen small much branched succulent Shrub growing to 1 m in saline soil of xeric habitat of District Bannu. This plant has inhibitory effect on germination of radicle and plumule of seed. In this study the effect of different concentration (0 mg/ml, 5mg/ml, 7mg/ml, 10mg/ml) of shade dry leaf methanol extract of Suaeda fruticosa on germination of Abelmoschus esculentus and Brassica oleracea were investigated. The results showed that the methanol extract of this plant gradually decreased the germination percentage, especially at higher concentration. The radicle and plumule length were also affected by different concentration. Maximum growths were occurred at control Petri dish the growth decreased as the concentration of extract increased, growth become Minimum at higher concentration. The same results were observed in the field by apply the same amount of methanol extract of this plant. It is concluded that presence of Suaeda fruticosa in the field may retard the germination and seedling of Abelmoschus esculentus plants and Brassica oleracea. It was also show that no growth occurs at higher concentration.

Original Research Article
Faculty of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

Phytochemical study for the pharmacological activity is an important segment of drug designing. This initial work establishes a foundation for product development. The pharmacological active compounds are finally developed into a pharmaceutical preparation. This is used in actual clinical and therapeutical practice to cure miscellaneous pathological problems. Thus; we have aimed this study for the extraction of compounds using two solvents of different polarities, so that maximum number of compounds can be extracted. Analytical technique used for the isolation and identification of the various compounds is thin layer chromatography. Phytochemical analysis of aerial parts showed the presence of Tannins, saponin and cardiac glycosides. Cardioactive glycosides, Tannin and saponin were reported in aerial parts of Ranunculus muricatus for the first time. Therefore Ranunculus muricatus can be used for further isolation and structural determination of cardioactive compounds.

Original Research Article
U. D. Shivhare, P. B. Suruse, S. S. Varvandkar

The main objective of the present study was to improve bioavailability of Aceclofenac and decrease the frequency of dosage form administration by sustained release formulation of the drug from the mucoadhesive drug delivery system. Aceclofenac belongs to the drug class known as NSAIDs. It is normally indicated for the treatment of dental pain, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. It is selective cox-2 inhibitor. It has an extensive and highly variable hepatic first pass metabolism following oral administration having half life of 4 h. The usual dose of Aceclofenac is 100 mg twice daily with systemic bioavailability of 40- 50% due to extensive “first-pass” metabolism and has a narrow absorption window. These characteristics make Aceclofenac a suitable drug candidate for mucoadhesive drug delivery system. Aceclofenac containing mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared by solvent evaporation method. The buccal patches were formulated using polymers HPMC E-15 and Eudragit RL 100 alone and in combination. The buccal patches were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, content uniformity, swelling index, in-vitro diffusion study, in-vitro residence time and in-vitro Mucoadhesive strength. Among five formulations using factorial approach F2 showed maximum release 92.35% upto 8 h.

Objective: To assess the prevalence, attitude, awareness and practice of self medication amongst students of Sargodha University, Pakistan. Methods: A descriptive cross –sectional study was conducted in the period from the beginning of January 2013 to April 2013 in Sargodha University, Pakistan. Convenience sample was selected. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Results: The prevalence rate of self medication in study participants was found up to 83% that is 249/300. High prevalence rates of self medication were seen in conditions of common cold(87%), headache(82%) and other pains(83%), hence most commonly used medications were paracetamol (83%), other NSAIDS (67%), Antibiotics(50%) and vitamins(60%).High consultation cost (75%), minor illness cases(93%), having previous experience (70%), time shortage (59%), friend’s advice to take medicine (77%) are the main factors & 48% participants indulge in this practice due to easily availability of all drugs from drug stores w/o prescription , 59% found it convenient to use this practice and 75% (N=225) participants had no awareness about complications of medicines that are consumed w/o professional consultation. we found that there was no prominent difference of self medication practice in males and females and in different age groups and among different departments. Conclusion: Prevalence rate of self medication is alarming in university students. Thus further work should be done on larger scale and strict policies should be intimated to address this problem and give awareness to individuals about medication use.

Review Article
Alamgeer, Taseer Ahmad, Iradat Hussain, Muhammad Naveed Mushtaq...

Depression is a mood disorder which is among the most dominant forms of psychiatric disorders and a major cause for morbidity and mortality. Since, many synthetic drugs are being used as anti-depressant, but due to adverse effects it leads to patient non-compliance. Thus, there is a need to search for plants oriented anti-depressant drugs and also develop a suitable animal model to clearly elucidate its effects. A number of medicinal plants have shown anti-depressant activities. This review attention is towards plant extract and its use in best animal model which will certainly highlights their influence on the development of novel therapeutic drugs.

Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) is a type of epilepsy in which recurrent seizures arises from the frontal lobes. It is important to characterize frontal lobe epilepsy and distinguish it from non epileptic seizures. In order to investigate therapeutic comprehensions of focal lobe epilepsy this case study was conducted. A 2 year old boy was presented in a private hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan with frontal lobe epilepsy. Chief complaint was fever and recurrent seizures, with the history of left sided focal fits. On the basis of his medical investigation the physician prescribed him ceftriaxone 100mg/Kg/day; acyclovir 100mg/Kg/day; Panadol suspension ( Paracetamol) 120mg/5ml/4hrs; phenytoin 180 mg diluted in 100cc Normal Saline over 1 hr as a loading dose; phenobarbitone 200mg diluted in 100cc Normal Saline over 1/2 hrs. Vital signs showed HR 136/min, RR 36/min and 101 °F temperature. Although therapy was effective in dealing with the chief complaint, but certain avoidable clinical errors were observed that required further optimization of the regimen.

This case study has been designed to report an incident of irrational use of Ibuprofen (NSAID) in a 10 year old child brought to a local hospital in Rawalpindi and describe the seriousness of adverse effects that are to be associated with irrational use of NSAIDS.Complete chronological history of child was taken including his past medication history by direct interview of the mother.The study has revealed that the efficacy and wide availability of OTC preparations of NSAIDS and irrational prescribing of physician has lead to their irrational use resulting in serious adverse effects to the consumers.So it is the responsibility of the health care professionals to optimize and help rationalize the use of these OTC drugs by the consumer.

A systematic study was conducted to investigate the causes of gastroenteritis in Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad during June, 2010. Of 220 individuals, 180 cases of gastroenteritis (81.8%) were recorded, compared to an average 18 monthly cases. Case study revealed that, illness was associated with drinking tap and poor filtered water. Enterococci were recovered from both gastroenteritis patients and water samples. Bacteriological analysis of 50 water samples showed that more than 80% of samples deviate from the WHO standards. This is an issue of public health significance and appropriate steps are required on behalf of authorities to address it.

Original Research Article
Arifa Tahir, Hafiza Hifsa Roohiand Tahira Aziz Mughal

Bacitracin is a potent antibiotic which is used in combination with other antimicrobial agents. Bacitracin in the form of its zinc salt is used as feed additive, growth promoter and for reduction of diseases in poultry. In the present study, twenty five bacterial strains capable of producing bacitracin were isolated from milk samples by heat shock method. Among all bacterial strains, the isolate no. 21 was found to be the most potential strain; it was identified and designated as Bacillus licheniformisBCL-21. Different fermentation media were evaluated for antibiotic production under submerged fermentation in shake flasks. The medium M1 gave higher antibiotic production (245.5 IU/ml) than M2(186.0 IU/ml) and M3(202.2 IU/ml). Different parameters were optimized in shake flask studies. The antibiotic production was 271.2±1.51 IU/ml by using 24 h old inoculum. Inoculum size was optimized to be 6.0 % ((274.0±1.89 IU/ml). The optimum pH was found to be 8.0 and bacitracin production was 245.5±0.58 IU/ml. At 37oCtemperature, production was295.0±1.34 IU/ml. Antibiotic activity was observed to be 283.9±1.43 IU/mlafter 48 h of incubation. The optimum agitation speed and working volume were observed to be 150 rpm(207.0±0.85 IU/ml) and 100 mL(232±1.29 IU/ml) respectively. Partial purification of bacitracin from fermentation broth was successfully done by precipitation method.

Review Article
Uzma Saleem, Mahmood S., Kamran S.H, Mutt M.A, Ahmad B

Galactosemia is an autosomal carbohydrate metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of galactose 1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT). Frequency of occurrence of this disorder varies, more common in Irish population and very less in Asians. There are three types of galactosemia but GALT is most common. The prominent sign and symptoms include hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, ascities, jaundice, poor feeding and vomiting. Cataracts, premature ovarian failure, decreases in bone mineral density, mental retardation are few of the long term complications. Symptoms appear within first few days of galactosemic infants. Strict dietary control (i.e. galactose free diet) can prevent acute toxicity but it does not guarantee the prevention of long term complications. The only treatment is complete elimination of galactose/lactose free diet and calcium supplements are used as supportive therapy.

Original Research Article
Imran Hayder, Ishtiaq A.Qazi, M.Ali Awan, Muhammad Arshad Khan,Aftab Turabi

To compare Ciprofloxacin attenuation efficiency, Ciprofloxacin solutions mixed with TiO2nanoparticles were irradiated with two different light sources: a UV lamp and ordinary electric bulb. Insignificant degradation was witnessed when irradiations were made in absence of TiO2. In contrast, prominent Ciprofloxacin degradation was detected in the presence of 0.01 mg/ml of TiO2. Close to 90 % and 70 % of its original concentration was eradicated in 120 minutes when the irradiation basis used was a UV lamp and Ordinary electric bulb respectively. Without the use of TiO2 nanoparticles, irradiation by UV lamp sources was also significant. The antibactacterial activity of chosen microorganisms was radically inhibited when exposed to Ciprofloxacin solution treated with photocatalyst for the short periods of irradiation.

Original Research Article
Kanza Ijaz, Omer B., Mehmood K.T.

Hepatitis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the liver, usually producing swelling and damage to liver tissues. The hepatitis C virus causes hepatitis C. A marked reduction in the quality of life of hepatitis C patients has been revealed in a number of studies conducted worldwide. A retrospective study was carried out among hundred patients of hepatitis C and three of them were followed for a period of 3months. The major aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of life of the patients suffering from hepatitis C, estimation of the patient compliance with the management methods, evaluation of the end results of the therapeutic treatment, assessment of the patient satisfaction with the medicines, comparison of the quality of life of the suffering patients with their optimum health state and the comparison of the quality of life of the patients during and after the management/treatment of the disease. In order to follow the study, a medication history/patient interview form was developed on the basis of which patients suffering from hepatitis C were interviewed. This survey was followed by the comparison of national treatment guidelines with international treatment guidelines. The study revealed that the patients were not satisfied with their quality of life during their ailment whereas many expressed that their quality of life improved after receiving a rational and well managed medical treatment.

Introduction: The prostate gland undergoes many changes during the course of a man's life. At birth, the prostate is about the size of a pea. It grows only slightly until puberty and then begins to enlarge rapidly, attaining normal adult size and shape, about that of a walnut, when a man reaches his early 20s. The gland generally remains stable until about the mid-40s. However after this age, the prostate begins to enlarge again sometimes due to a cause not fully understood through an abnormal process of cell multiplication giving rise to a medical condition known as BPH. Case presentation: We report the case of 66-year-old Asian man experiencing lower urinary tract symptoms which was not initially diagnosed for BPH and remained under treatment for next 3 weeks. During this period, he switched to different physicians and diverse types of lab tests were conducted but actual cause couldn’t be exposed. The misdiagnosis by numerous therapists and continuous negligence made the condition to grow gradually. When symptoms severity amplified, patient had to consult an urologist who diagnosed the condition as BPH. The disease that could’ve been easily treated at an early staged with proper medical care, required prostatectomy then for its treatment. Conclusion: Not all cases of BPH are diagnosed and taken care at its initial stages. Our report emphasizes the hidden danger of disease being proliferate in such cases. The need for a good clinical evaluation by a qualified therapist and the use of appropriate investigative studies is mandatory in order to avoid unnecessary medications, operations and complications.

Original Research Article
Putta Rajesh Kumar, Hiremath Doddayya and S. Rajendra Reddy

The present study was aimed to develop a gastroretentive tablet that could deliver antibiotic in stomach from the coat tablet for localized action and acid liable anti secretory agent in duodenum from the enteric coated core. During tablet formulation Studies on rheological characteristics of Clarithromycin coat granular blends showed their free flowing nature and ease for compression to tablet. The compressed tablets exhibited uniform post compressional characteristics. Evaluation of floating parameters indicated results suits for the tablets to formulate core in coat tablets for release of Clarithromycin in gastric pH and esomeprazole in alkaline pH to treat peptic ulcer disease associated with h pylori bacteria. The formulations exhibited uniform rheological and post compressional properties. The drug content was found to be uniform and consistent in all formulations. The tablet showed density < 1 facilitated tablets floating ability over 0.1N HCl with minimum floating lag time. In vitro release studies showed that T6C6 formulation exhibited better release for both the drugs in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids for 12 h. The study revealed the role of porous carriers, cellulosic polymers and natural gums on drug release profiles of esomeprazole core in clarithromycin coat gastroretentive tablets in duodenal ulcer treatment.

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium followed by necrosis and/or degeneration of myocytes [1]; caused by a viral [2] or bacterial infection [3]. Thus we have aimed this case of a six years old child (boy) presented in a local hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. He has the complaints of high grade fever, vomiting, lower abdominal pain, anorexia, lethargy, respiratory depression with nasal flaring and body aches. The physician prescribed injection Ceftrioxone 750mg IV (intravenous) b.i.d (twice daily), syrup Disprol DS (double strength) t.i.d (thrice time a day), gel Dektarin T.D.S t.i.d, syrup Artem (Artemether and Lumefantrine) 5ml p.o (oral) b.i.d. Physician recommend ECG, CRP (C-reactive protein ) and cardiac enzymes. On basis of diagnosis the physician prescribed drugs for acute myocarditis were Tab Digoxin 0.25 1/4 b.i.d, Tab Renitec 5mg 1/4 o.d (once daily), Tab Spiromide 20mg 1/4+1/4 b.i.d. along with previous therapy. Certain queries and inaccuracies noted during the treatment so interactions and dosage were needed to adjusted properly to optimize the regimens. A combination of ACE inhibitors and spironolactone should be addressed with close monitoring in patients with renal insufficiency, worsening heart failure, dehydration and with medications that may cause hyperkalemia. Moreover; dose adjustment needed in concomitant conventional acute myocarditis along with frequent monitoring of electrolytes and renal parameters.

Original Research Article
Tarique Ali Meer, Ajay Sav, Purnima Amin

A novel liquisolid compact technique was used for soulbility enahncement of poorly water soluble drug carvedilol (CAR). CAR was dissolved in water miscible non volatile solvent and then adsorbed on a solid carrier which was later compacted with other excipient into a tablet. The tablets were characterized with respect to hardness, friability, disintegration and in-vitro dissolution profile. Effect of storage conditions on dissolution profile was also studied. DSC and XRD studies were done to confirm the physical state of CAR in the formulation.

Original Research Article
Vinay Wamorkar, Manjunath S. Yallagatti, MohanVarma

The purpose of this research was to fabricate and optimize Gastro-retentive drug delivery system for Metoclopramide Hydrochloride. The effect of ethyl cellulose and sodium alginate on the drug release profile and floating properties was evaluated. Sodium carbonate was incorporated as gas generating agent. The addition of ethyl cellulose reduces the drug dissolution rate due to its hydrophobic nature. A D-Optimal Technique was applied systematically to optimize the drug release profile. The amounts of ethyl cellulose (X1) and sodium alginate (X2) were selected as independent variables. The cumulative percent of drug released at 8, 12 and 16 hours were selected as dependent variables. The study shows that, tablet composition and mechanical strength have great influence on floating properties and drug release. All formulations were evaluated for dimensional analysis, duration of buoyancy, floating lag time, drug content and in-vitro drug release. Optimized formulation’s data was subjected to various release kinetic models. The drug release was sufficiently sustained for 24 hours. Model equations of zero and first order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell and Peppas, intended to elucidate the drug release mechanism, were fitted to the release data. The zero order release was observed with r2 values of 0.98. The difference in the release pattern and kinetics can be explained by the different swelling and erosion behaviors.

High blood pressure is regarded as “the silent killer” because it often has no warning signs or symptoms. About 60% of people who have diabetes also have high blood pressure. Diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) because COPD directly increases the insulin resistance. Insulin resistance commonly occurs with obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Together these make up the ‘metabolic syndrome’, which is a major determinant of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus; the purpose of this case study is to understand the complexity of diseases that can arise problems in treatment regimes to avoid clinical errors for optimizing the therapy plans. A 58 year old male was presented in the medical ward of semi-private hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan with chief complaints of acute exacerbation of COPD, uncontrolled hypertension, known carotid artery stenosis and left sided chest pain. On the basis of his medical investigation, the physician prescribed him tablet Theograde(theophylline) 350mg ½ BID( twice a day), tablet Rast (rosuvastatin) 10mg 1 × HS (at night), Tablet Lasix (furosemide) 40mg 1 × O.D (once a day), tablet Minipress (prazosin) , tablet Panadol (paracetamol) 2× TDS(three times a day), tablet Famot (famotidine) 40mg 1 × O.D, Atem (Ipratropium bromide) nebulization three times a day, Ventolin (salbuatamol) nebulization four times a day, Brufen (ibuprofen) cream, steam inhalation three times a day and Injection Leflox(levofloxacin) 500mg IV × O.D. vital signs showed temperature 99°F, respiratory rate 21 breaths/ minute, Blood pressure 150/105, pulse 86/minute and PEFR 250 L/minute. Cyanosis and edema were observed. CVS= S1+S2+ loud R2. There were certain clinical and pharmaceutical inaccuracies were noted during the treatment. Thus; a rational clinical practice needed to implement health care system. Specially; the avoidable clinical errors are required to be addressed to optimize the regimens. The need of hour is a qualified pharmacist side by side with an experienced prescriber which will help to avoid the undesired health related consequences.

Original Research Article
Ashish Jain, Satish Nayak, Vandana Soni

In vitro transdermal delivery of captopril across excised pig skin using various enhancers investigated. Permeation studies carried out at the modified franz diffusion cell. Steady state fluxes, permeability coefficients, diffusion coefficients, benefits and enhancement ratios by various enhancers were determined. Incorporation of various permeability enhancers like dimethyl sulfoxide, peppermint oil, menthol, oleic acid, sodium louryl sulphate, poly ethylene glycol with pure drug solution showed synergistic effect when combined with iontophoresis. Dimethyl sulfoxide was the most active enhancer, and when combined with iontophoresis it was possible to deliver 103.940 mmol/cm2 of drug at the end of 8 hours, it was 4.4 times enhancement as compare to delivery of drug without enhancers.

Review Article
Sairah Hafeez Kamran, Uzma Saleem, Bashir Ahmad, Mobasher Ahmad

Iron overload cardiomyopathy is a serious complication and major cause of mortality in hereditary haemochromatosis and beta thalassemia. Excessive iron in cardiomyocytes leads to oxidative damage of the myocardium. The mechanisms that accelerate the iron overloading in cardiomyocytes should be fully understood to adopt the modes of diagnosis and treatment in order to improve the quality of life in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis and ß-thalassemia. This article gives a review of the possible mechanisms that increase the iron overload in cardiac cells, the different methods of diagnosis and the available treatments.

Original Research Article
Hariprasanna R.C, Hrushikesh Dewalkar, Upendra kulkarni, Basawaraj S Patil, Ravi Yachwad, Mahesh More

The objective of this research was to formulate fast dissolving tablet of Ziprasidone for rapid action. Vacuum drying method was adapted to prepare the tablets by using two different Sublimating agents. All formulations are evaluated for pre and post-compression parameters like Angle of repose, Bulk density, Tapped density, Housners ratio, Hardness, Weight variation, wetting time, water absorption ratio, Disintegration time, Drug content. The results obtained showed that the quantity of camphor significantly affect response variables. The results indicate that the optimized tablet formulation provides a short DT of 13 sec with sufficient crushing strength and acceptable friability.

Original Research Article
Hasanpasha .N Sholapur, Fatima Sanjeri Dasankoppa, N.G.Nangundaswamy, Arunkumar G R

Guar gum is a galactomannan polysaccharide obtained from the dried ripe seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus. The objective of the present study was to derivatise guar gum to SCEG and to overcome limitations of guar gum viz, susceptible to microbial contamination, fall in viscosity on storage and to form a clear aqueous dispersion without imparting color to the formulation. The semisyntheic derivative of SCEG obtained by alcoholic alkali suspension method of guar gum was tried by applying optimization technique (32 factorial design) by altering the 2-chloropropionic acid:guar gum, percentage w/v ratio NaOH and temperature of the reaction mixture. The optimized polymer obtained from the various trials was subjected to physical, chemical and spectral characterization. Characterization revealed that derivatization of the guar gum to sodium carboxy ethyl guar. The derivatised polymer exhibited high stability at all ranges of temperature (50C, 250C, 370C and 450C), controlled rate of hydration, pseudoplastic flow pattern and less susceptibility to microbial contamination. Sodium carboxy ethyl guar solution is more controllable than gaur gum with regard to its thickening, viscosity building, suspending, film forming and excipent in the matrix tablets. The valid application of optimization technique was found to be highly productive in achieving an effective semisynthetic derivative meeting the ideal requirements.

Asthma (inflammatory conditions of the lung) is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, bronchospasm and reversible airflow obstructions. The incidence, prevalence, and mortality of the disease will increase by 20% with incoming 10 years if not controlled. This case study has been designed to report the irrational medication therapy of a 5 years old asthmatic child (a girl) who was admitted in a local hospital of Rawalpindi. SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan) study of the child was taken into account and her mother was directly interviewed for complete past history. The case study showed that the child was administered Ventoline (salbutamol) continuously excluding her response to therapy. She was also given 2 antibiotics at a time without dose adjustment. Results obtained from the study clearly showed that BNF protocol was not followed for some medicines, and also no dose adjustment was done. There must be deep insight in rational therapy of treatment to cure the disease, otherwise both the ADRs and non-compliance will increase.

Original Research Article
Amal A. Elkordy1*, Amin Ashoore1 and Ebtessam A. Essa2,3

Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have adverse effects on stomach. The histological appearance of affected mucosal cells ranging from mild to sever inflammation. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of: (i) ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD), Poloxamer-407 (PLX) and sorbitol (Sorb) as carriers and (ii) freeze drying and physical mixing as techniques on solubility and dissolution of a model poorly water soluble NSAID drug, Naproxen (Nap) for the ultimate aim to avoid gastric discomfort via enhancement drug release. Therefore, two binary drug/carrier (1:1 and 1:4 w/w Nap/carrier ratios) combinations were prepared. The effect of multicomponent carrier systems, using ternary physical mixtures of Nap with ß-CD and PLX on the drug solubility and dissolution were also studied. All formulations were characterized using solubility, content uniformity, dissolution studies, Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). All tested Nap/ combinations showed enhancement in drug release compared to pure drug, except Sorb that show a slight improvement only at high sugar concentration. Ternary Nap combinations showed the highest improvement of drug dissolution, compared to binary ones. Freeze dried formulations showed a marked enhancement in drug release especially in the first few minutes, compared to physical mixtures. Thermal studies indicated a reduction in drug crystallinity with freeze dried samples giving a higher amorphous yield obtained compared to binary physical mixtures.

Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which a person has repeated seizures (convulsions) over time. There is geographic variation in the incidence of epileptic syndromes likely to be associated with genetic and environmental factors, although as yet causality has not been fully established. The complete range of etiologies in the general population is not known. Few predictors of outcome are recognized and it is difficult to prognosticate in any individual case. Knowledge is patchy about the epidemiology of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Future epidemiological research needs to address these issues if we are to progress. A 21 years old male with epilepsy came to the local hospital, Rawalpindi with chief complaints of body stiffness , unconsciousness, constipation and unable to swallow food for 16 days. His physical examination showed blood pressure 110/70 mm Hg, pulse 80 per minute, temperature a febrile.. On the basis of his physical and medical examination, the physician prescribed tablet Phenobarbitone 15mg oral BID (two times a day); tablet Tegral® (carbamazepine) 200 mg oral BID; tablet Famot® (famotidine) 40 mg oral TDS (three times a day). Prescribed doses of Famotidine and Carbamazepine are according to the reference book recommendations but dose of Phenobarbitone is found to be less than recommendations of reference book. The main protocol of treatment is to avoid the occurrence of seizures by maintaining an effective dose of antiepileptic drugs which are adjusted to give maximum therapeutic outcomes with minimum adverse consequences. Therefore, for the treatment of epilepsy a careful adjustment of doses is necessary, starting with low doses and increases gradually until seizures are controlled and there are less significant adverse effects. Therefore; the comprehensive clinical examination and therapeutic care is needed that will help to avoid the undesired health related consequences.

Original Research Article
Fawad Ali Bangash, Hashmi A.N., Mahboob A., Zahid M., Hamid B., Muhammad S.A., Shah Z.U., Afzaal H.

Ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of Piper betel leaf were tested against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633), Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas putida, Salmonella typhi ATCC 19430, Shigella flexneri ATCC 25929, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 33347, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 49565) bacterial strains by Agar-well Diffusion Method. All the crude extracts showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity inhibiting both the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Petroleum ether extracts of Piper betel were found to be least effective against most of the tested organisms. Moderate antibacterial activity has been studied with chloroform extracts while ethanolic fractions have been investigated to show optimum activity against nearly all chosen strains. Levofloxacin, the semi-synthetic broad spectrum antibiotic was used as standard Compare to levofloxacin, bio active fractions of Piper betel showed maximum activity against the Klebsiella pneumonia. This study reports the possible activity of Piper betel leaf in arresting the growth of selected bacterial strains. It has been expected that the present work on antimicrobial isolation of the plant bio active parts will lead to the researchers who continue work that may bring clinical success concerning the fatal diseases.

Original Research Article
Khaja Moinuddin, MA Altaf, Githa kishore

Pneumonia is a lower respiratory tract infection that specially affects the lungs and is caused by micro-organisms. Pneumonia kills more children than any other illness, more than AIDS, malaria and measles combined. To study the prescribing pattern of antibiotics in pneumonia in pediatric patients. A prospective study was conducted for nine months in inpatients of pediatric department of KIMS hospital and research centre, Bangalore. The review of treatment charts, patient’s parents/caregiver interview was conducted to collect the data pertaining to study of prescribing pattern of antibiotics used in the treatment of pneumonia. The collected data was analyzed by the descriptive statistical analysis. In this study, out of 105 patients 62 were males and 43 females.(43%) of inpatients were less then one year in age and 72 patients were not completely immunized. 61 patient diagnosed as pneumonia representing consolidation and 44 with bronchopneumonia. 43% Amox-clav and i.v Ceftriaxone 36% were commonly prescribed antibiotic pneumonia. 73 patients prescribed with single antibiotic. 54% Ceftriaxone was prescribed as empirical antibiotic. Pneumonia is most commonly seen in children who were with incompletely immunized. More male children suffered from pneumonia than females. The most commonly prescribed antibiotic was i.v Amox-clav in patients representing consolidation and i.v Ceftriaxone in bronchopneumonia. Ceftriaxone was the commonly prescribed as empirical antibiotic. Patients who received therapy with cephalosporin derivatives (Ceftriaxone and cefotaxime) had the lower mean duration of hospital stay, less than 7 days

Short Report
Ayed Mizher Habeeb Al-Shammari1*, Ian Naylor2, Robert Naylor2

Smoking promotes arthrosclerosis which means hardening of blood vessels and blocking of arterioles. When this affects the blood vessels that supply the heart, it can lead to destruction of heart muscle. To try and find out why the aspirin had exerted such a beneficial effect, some of the major risk factors which contribute to the risk of heart attacks and strokes were examined in the subjects who took part in the trial, and they all were smokers. It has been observed that diastolic pressure had been modified during the treatment with aspirin.

Original Research Article
*1Yusra Habib Khan, 1AzmiSarriff, 1Amer Hayat Khan

Osteoporosis remains a major global public health concern. A good knowledge and awareness of a disease are pre-requisites for success of preventive measures, modifications in life styles and treatment adherence.Previously, various studies to evaluate knowledge of osteoporosis in different populations have been conducted. Most of these studies assumed that as knowledge regarding a disease increases, attitudes and practices of preventive measures towards that disease change positively. Aim of the article is to review all published articles based on knowledge assessment in different community population and to correlate level of knowledge with significant demographic factors as well as practice of preventive behaviors. The most significant factor that showed direct relation with knowledge of osteoporosis was level of education while most of the studies revealed a weak association between knowledge of osteoporosis and practice of preventive behaviors. In order to evaluate knowledge and practices regarding osteoporosis, a single validated questionnaire should be developed by well-established organizations working for osteoporosis. Secondly factors, other than knowledge, that could affect attitude and practices should be figured out. Focusing on those factors, appropriate multidisciplinary programs to enhance knowledge of osteoporosis in different community populations should be developed.

Original Research Article
Asia Parveen1,¥, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash2,3,*,¥, Kanwal Rehman2, Muhammad Tariq4, Nureen Zahra1, Tahira Iqbal5

The aim of the study was to characterize the biodisposition kinetics parameters of Isoniazid after a single oral administration of 150mg tablet Isoniazid. The study was conducted on 6 healthy female volunteers with an average age of 21-22 years and an average body weight of 42-56 kg in the department of chemistry (Biochemistry) university of agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Blood samples were collected after predetermined schedule and drug concentration was determined by using spectrophotometric method. The two compartment model kinetic analysis of plasma isoniazid concentration versus time data revealed estimated values of t1/2 ß, clearance and volume of distribution to be 7.60 ± 3.73h, 4.61± 2.69 1/h and 45.45 ± 22.35L respectively. Moreover, the area under curve (AUC), absorption rate constant (ka) and mean residence time (MRT) were observed to be 38.16± 13.76, 0.76±0.12 and 9.53± 4.21 respectively. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic parameters observed for isoniazid in current study were found to be significantly different from some of the previously reported literature, suggesting that an adequate and rational dosage regimen of drug requires a disposition study of parameters under specific indigenous environment prior to their administration.

Original Research Article
MD Kamal Hossain*ab, Daniel Sandersona, Kamrun Nahara , Dr AW Gestiera , Mohammad Salahuddin Khanc and Kaiser Hamidd

The objective of the study was to evaluate the treatment efficacy and safety of Ivermectin ‘drop on’ liquid for the management of Knemidocoptes infestation in Budgerigars. Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatis) were selected as representative of caged birds, being the most commonly affected species. Fifteen (15) birds for dose titration, eighteen (18) for efficacy and nine (9) for the safety study were used. The efficacy study was conducted over three weeks. Birds of bodyweight less than 30 g was given one drop and birds of bodyweight 30 g to 100 g was given two drops of ivermectin solution (Avimec(R) ) on the skin of the thigh and treatment was repeated weekly. The safety study was performed as an acute toxicity trial with a single application. 0.1 % ivermectin ‘drop on’ liquid was effective for the eradication of mite within two weeks. One drop (0.05mL) was effective for birds of bodyweight of less than 30g and two drops (0.1 mL) was effective for birds of bodyweight 30g to 100g. Significant improvement was observed after day 7 and complete eradication was observed within 2 weeks. For the safety study, birds were treated 5X and 10X of the standard dose. No adverse reaction or toxicities were observed. Topical “drop on” ivermectin liquid (Avimec) showed rapid and effective treatment of Knemidocoptes infection. Moreover 0.1 % ivermectin drop on liquid also demonstrated a high therapeutic index of greater than 10X of standard dose.

Short communication
Ayed Mizher Habeeb Al-Shammari1*, Dr Ian Naylor2, Professor Robert Naylor2

The active component of smoke which is nicotine plays its major role of for deposition of cholesterol in the inner wall of arties as acting as centre of accumulation of fats. This cholesterol which is considered one of the major factors of high blood pressure and heart attack, which deposited on inner walls of arties due to involvement of nicotine and shorting the passage of blood which finally develop a high blood pressure. It has found that aspirin effectively dissolve the cholesterol and normalize the blood pressure and acts as dilator [dilating the arties for normal flow of blood]. The concentrations of cholesterol in milli mole were treated with aspirin and it has been found that aspirin effectively treated against higher concentration of cholesterol in blood.

Short communication
E.Andreas1,2,3, Ali Mujahid1,3 , Attia Youssef1, Seidi Armin1

A mutated K-RAS gene is the originator of several characters of colorectal cancer among them tumor initiation, growth, survival, metastasis formation and even immune response. Thus; the aim of our experiments is to establish if the tumor samples express the K-RAS mutation before starting the monoclonal antibody-based therapy. Otherwise it makes no sense to block the receptor binding site if the signaling cascade is independent of the binding of the ligand to the receptor. Colorectal cancer, a cancer resulting from uncontrolled cell growth in the colon or rectum is the fourth most common cause of cancer death. The stage of its development affects the method of treatment of this disease. A prominent method to treat this type of cancer is the blockage of the EGFR by monoclonal antibodies. This kind of approach however seems only to be efficient as long as there is no mutation of K-Ras, a GTPase thought to play an important role at an early stage of the development of colorectal cancer. In case of a mutation in the RAS protein, the Ras GTPase is activated to such an extent that the subsequent over activation of downstream signaling pathways leads to tumor genesis.

Original Research Article
Sheeja Edvin Jerald1, Ajeet Pandey2, Papiya Bigoniya2* and Shilpi Singh2

Momordica charantia Descourt (Cucurbetaceae) known as Karela is an extremely bitter vegetable, commonly found in India. M. charantia had reported anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti- inflammation and antioxidant properties. It is used as antifertility agent in folklore; however no studies have been done on its antifertility action. Anti-fertility potential of the M. charantia hydroalcoholic extracts of seed and pulp was explored on in vitro spermicidal, antiovulatory, in vivo estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity along with uterus histopathology. Data were presented as M ? SEM and analyzed with ANOVA followed by t-test. MCHS and MCHP are tested for its antifertility activity at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, orally as it was found safe on acute dosing of 2000 mg/kg. Pulp extract at 1280 µg/ml concentration caused significant damage to the sperm membrane integrity as evidenced by the reduction in sperm viability and tail curling. Administration of pulp extract at 400 mg/kg dose caused significant (p < 0.001) increases in uterine weight in immature rats while co-administration with ethinylestradiol decreased the uterus weight and increased the height of luminal epithelium with stimulated glands. Pulp extract at 400 mg/kg dose also caused significant (p < 0.001) prolongation estrous cycle and diestrous phase. Among the two extracts tested at two different doses, the hydroalcoholic pulp extract of M. charantia at 400 mg/kg was found to exhibit antifertility activity may be due to rich presence of triterpenoidal glycosides, flavonoids and alkaloids.

Original Research Article
Venkata Raju Y *, Sunitha G, Ashish Kumar Pal, Haripriya A, Sirisha N, Pani kumar AD.

A reverse phase stability indicating HPLC method was developed for the analysis of efavirenz bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The developed method was also utilized for in-vitro dissolution studies of efavirenz formulations. Acetonitrile and acetate buffer pH 3.4 was the mobile phase (75:25% v/v), with retention time of 4.007 min at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min detected at 292 nm wavelength. Linear regression analysis calibration plot showed an excellent linearity between response and concentration in the range of 50-300 µgmL-1. The regression co-efficient was 0.999 and the linear regression equation was y = 7780x+11159. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.238 and 0.793 µgmL-1 respectively. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, detection and quantification limits, in accordance with ICH guidelines. The specificity of the method was ascertained by forced degradation studies by acid, alkali hydrolysis, oxidation and thermal degradation methods. The degraded products were well resolved from the analysis peak with significant differences at their retention time values. Wide linearity range, sensitivity, accuracy, short retention time and simple mobile phase indicate the method is suitable for routine quantification of efavirenz with high precision and accuracy.

Review Article
Suraj Abraham ,2,3*; Numbi Ramudu Kamini3 and Marichetti Kuppuswami Gowthaman3

We report scale-up production of alkaline lipases from Aspergillus niger MTCC 2594 using submerged stir tank fermenter (SSTF). The batch culture experiments and biomass studies suggest that olive oil used in the process reduced enzyme yield. We found that the addition of olive oil intermittently might be a potential fed-batch strategy to improve lipase production using Aspergillus niger MTCC 2594.

Traditional medicinal plant, Withania somnifera, Eclipta prostrata and Gossypium herbasceum were analyzed for reducing power ability as an antioxidant using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and for total phenolics using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results of the analysis show that W. somnifera, E. prostrate and G. herbascium have percentage antioxidant activity (AA%) of 98.12±0.50, 96.45±0.45 and 90.62±0.35 respectively. W. somniferam and E. prostrate show higher while Gossypium herbasceum less activity than those of Gallic (92.92±0.55) and Ascorbic acids (94.81±0.56) used as standards. W. somnifera, E. prostrata and G. herbascium also show high reductive potential of 0.99, 0.94 and 0.90nm at the same concentration with Gallic acid whose reductive potential was 0.93nm. The total phenolic determination shows that W. somnifera, E. prostrate and G. herbascium have the phenolic content of 14, 12 and 11mg/g GAE respectively. The results of this analysis reveal the fact that plants are rich sources of natural antioxidant.

Case study
Huma Naeem, Ashfaq Ahmad, Chaudhary Bakhtawar Khan, Raja Khawar Nawaz

Prognosis of uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a major reason of secondary complications. Which are eventually increasing the morbidities and mortalities in all over the world. The correct dose and protocols most probably reduce the chances of secondary complications. Therefore; we have aimed this case report to rationalize the anti-hyperglycemic drugs. A 51 years old woman with frequent chest pain, headache, neckache, sweating and radiating pain in left arm was presented in clinical setup. She has diabetes since the last 10 years and hypertensive since 5 years. Initially she tried to manage her disease by controlling her diet and then started Tab. Glucophage (Metformin) 250 mg in morning, 500 mg at bed time and Herbesser Tablet (Diltiazem) as antihypertensive agent. Afte some time her medications were changed; Tab Lowplat (Clopidogrel) Tab. Ulcenil, Tab Disprin CV 300 mg, Tab Herbesser 30 mg tid, Tab Nitromint, tab Vastarel MR bid and Atorvastatin 20 mg for 4 weeks. After 6 months, angioplastic report showed the same results. She was admitted again in same hospital for clinical support of her uncontrolled glucose, fluctuating blood pressure and development of secondary complications. It is thus inferred from this case report that the aggressive and irrational medications may develop the secondary complications. The patient with family history of diabetes and hypertension need more care. Thus it is understood that hypertension and diabetes should be treated seriously to avoid the complications.

Original Research Article
Syed Umer Jan*, Gul Majid Khan**, Kamran Ahmed Khan** Asim ur Rehman** and Haroon Khan**

The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate polymeric tablets of Ketoprofen for the release rate, and mechanism. Formulations with different types and grades of Ethyl Cellulose Ether derivatives were prepared in several drug-to-polymer ratios (D:P ratio 10:1, 10:2 and 10:3). These formulations were compressed into tablets using the direct compression method. They were examined for the physical properties and appearance. Tablet dimensional tests i.e., (thickness, diameter) and QC tests (hardness, friability, and disintegration) were performed according to the USP methods. Invitro dissolution was performed. In order to analyze the drug release kinetics from each of the prepared matrices, five standard mathematical models were applied to the release data. The study showed that in case of tablets containing Ethocel premium polymers of 7, 10, and 100 grades show approximately 90-98% release of the drug from tablet in 24 hours compared to the Ethocel FP premium of 7, 10, and 100 which showed less release in 24 hours following nearly zero order kinetics.

Original Research Article
Tasneem Farasat*, Tahira Mughal*, Ayesha Liaqat *

Thyroid dysfunction is the common endocrine disorder and females are more affected than males. The aim of this study was to assess the serum thyroid hormones level in premenopausal and postmenopausal females with thyroid dysfunction and observed the effect of thyroid dysfunction on body weight and menstrual regularity. Total 91 female subjects were included in the study. Serum thyroid hormone levels of TSH, FT3 and FT4 were assessed by ELISA technique. It was concluded from the present study that serum TSH levels were significantly higher in premenopausal and postmenopausal hypothyroid females as compared to the control group (P<0.01). In hyperthyroid premenopausal females serum TSH level was significantly lower from the control group (P<0.01). Serum FT3 level was significantly higher in hyperthyroid premenopausal and postmenopausal females as compared to control group (P<0.01). In this study, 80% of premenopausal hypothyroid females and 65% of hyperthyroid females complained about menstrual irregularities, this percentage is high as compared to control subjects which is 20% (P<0.01). Inverse negative correlation was observed between TSH, T3, TSH, and T 4, whereas positive correlation was observed between T3 and T 4. Thyroid dysfunction can lead to menstrual irregularities and infertility.

Original Research Article
M. Imran Qadir1, M. Saleem1, Syed Haroon Khalid2, Salman Akbar Malik3, Asif Massud1, Mohsin Ali1, Sajid Asghar1 and M. Sajid Hamid Akash1

Neoplastic disease indicates a disease of new growth. Neoplasms or tumors may be divided into two categories; benign tumors and malignant tumors. Benign tumors are relatively innocent and remain localized. Malignant tumors are also called cancers and are distinguished from benign tumors by the properties of invasiveness and metastasis. Cancer of the leukocytes and their precursors is known as leukemia. Triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol constitute plasma lipid profile. Objective of the present study was to investigate relationship of plasma lipid profile (Triglycerides, Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol and HDL-Cholesterol) with leukemia. 180 subjects were included in the study. The subjects comprised of two groups; first as Controls (90 in number) and the second as Patients of Leukemia (also 90 in number). Fasting blood samples were collected for estimation of plasma lipid levels. Comparison between mean values of plasma lipid profile of control subjects and leukemia patients indicated that there was moderate decrease in all plasma levels of leukemia patients: triglycerides (31.29%, P < 0.01), cholesterol (27.15%, P < 0.01), LDL-cholesterol (23.28%, P < 0.01) and HDL-cholesterol (24.70%, P<0.05). As there is a change in plasma lipid profile of leukemia patients, the plasma lipid profile may be used as adjuvant for identification of the disease along with the standard diagnostics tools.

Original Research Article
Mohammad Yousuf Khan1, 2* Maria Qureshi3, Taha Nazir2, 4, Nisar-ur-Rahman5, M Khan6

Coating material, Particle size distribution, ACI, Turbohaler, Formoterol.

Original Research Article
Tasnim Farasat1, Ayesha Liaqat1, Tahira Mughal2

Thyroid dysfunction is the common endocrine disorder and females are more affected than males. The aim of this study was to assess the serum thyroid hormone level in premenopausal and postmenopausal females with thyroid dysfunction and observe the effect of thyroid dysfunction on body weight and menstrual regularity. Total 91 female subjects were included in the study. Serum thyroid hormone levels of TSH, FT3 and FT4 were assessed by ELISA technique. It was observed that serum TSH levels were significantly higher in premenopausal and postmenopausal hypothyroid females groups (P<0.01) as compared to the control group with normal thyroid function. Demographic characteristics and disease history of the subject were collected. In hyperthyroid premenopausal females serum TSH level was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.01). Serum FT3 level was significantly higher in hyperthyroid premenopausal and postmenopausal females as compared to control group (P<0.01). In this study, 80% of premenopausal hypothyroid females and 65% of hyperthyroid females complained about menstrual irregularities, this percentage is high as compared to control subjects, which is 20% (P<0.01). Inverse negative correlation was observed between TSH, T3, TSH, and T 4, whereas positive correlation was observed between T3 and T 4. Thyroid dysfunction can lead to menstrual irregularities

Original Research Article
1Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, 2Robina Kausar, 3Muhammad Salman Akhtar &Amanat Ali

Prevalence of diabetes mellitus has increased all over the world particularly in the developing countries including Pakistan. A study was designed to determine the nutritive value and glycaemic responses of 5 different test and control meals including chapatti + eggs and three varieties of KFC burger (Zinger, Chicken, Sub 60) and local burgers. To determine the nutritive value approximate analysis (CHO, Protein, fat, ash, fibre contents) of 6 different meals were done and to determine the glycaemic responses blood was taken by Finger Prick method and glycaemic responses were noted after 0, 30, 60, 90, 180, 120 minutes for diabetic volunteers on 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 minutes for normal volunteers. It was observed that all the five burgers included in the study possess high glycaemic indices. It is conceivable; therefore, that diabetic patients and obese individuals should not take all these burgers in their daily routine

Tea is extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinenesis. Methanoic extract of black tea samples diluted in ethanol has been shown to enhance antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans in combination with Chloramphenicol, Levofloxacin and Gentamycin. This study investigated the influence of boiled water green tea extract on the effectiveness of Penicillin G against the Bacillus subtilis bacterium. Using a range of dilutions of green tea solution, a positive relationship (p<0.001) was found between the relative green tea concentration and the area of inhibition.

Original Research Article
1Haroon Khan, 1Muhammad Farid Khan, 2Syed Umer Jan*, 1Kamran Ahmad Khan and 1Shefaat Ullah Shah

Lithium remains a mainstay in the acute and prophylactic treatment of bipolar affective disorder. It is used in the augmentation of antidepressant treatment and, less frequently, in the augmentation of antipsychotic treatment of schizophrenia. It is reported to have specific anti-suicidal effects. Systematic reviews by the Cochrane collaboration and others have examined the evidence base or its use in these contexts. Thus it is interesting to study the effect of Lithium on the Glutathione. The effect of Lithium on the chemical status of the glutathione in plasma has been studied using Ellman’s method. The effect of Lithium on the chemical status of glutathione was determined in plasma for concentration and time dependent effects. There was found a drastic effect on decreasing the concentration of glutathione in plasma as the concentration is increased and time has passed. The decrease in the Glutathione level was concentration and time of interaction dependent, probably due to oxidation of GSH to corresponding disulphide (GSSG).In this paper the effect of Lithium metal on thiol /GSH level was discussed in vitro, which in principal may present a model of in vivo reaction.

Short communication
Aqeel Mahmood1, Adeel Mahmood2* and Alia Tabassum3

From ancient times, plants are being used in various diseases. Many of today’s drugs have been derived from plant sources. This study was conducted to record the ethnomedicinal information of highly medicinal plants of district Sialkot, Pakistan. Medicinal uses of plants were collected through questionnaire method, interviews and direct observation of plants and their actions. Data was recorded on questionnaires and plants were collected. 25 plants belonging to 17 families were recorded in this survey and 135 locals were visited, including 80 males 43 females and 12 Hakims. Medicinal information collected by this study is presented here. This study indicated that the district Sialkot has abundance of indigenous medicinal plants to cure a broad spectrum of human ailments. There is therefore, a need to preserve this treasure and to harvest these medicinal plants from the wild, train local collectors. Thus; the fundamental features of source, scientific origin and clinical value have been established to develop the future plans of isolation, purification and synthesis therapeutical effective medicinal plants of the area.

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) infects one third of population, world over. Anti-tubercular like isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide are highly effective but hepatotoxic. Data on prevalence of anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis and contributing risk factors are scarce in Bahawalpur. This cross-sectional study was designed to look at the prevalence and promoting risk factors of druginduced hepatitis in the urban population of Bahawalpur district, Punjab- Pakistan. Methods: We examined a total of 1161 peoples (>15 years; 589 male and 572 female); divided into 3 groups i.e., young (1535 years), mature (3550 years) and old (>50 years). Population was compared in terms of demographical data and risk factors, such as age, gender, hepatitis B/C carrier, and pretreatment liver biochemistries (serum albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin). Data was evaluated by 95% confidence interval. Differences were considered significant at p<0.05 and highly significant at p<0.001. Results: Out of 146 TB patients, 21 developed hepatitis. The prevalence of drug-induced hepatitis was 14.38%. Lower serum albumin (p<0.05), higher serum globulin (p<0.05), tuberculosis, hepatitis B/C and poverty were significant risk factors. Conclusion: ATB-induced hepatotoxicity was significantly frequent among the patients treated with ATB.

Original Research Article
Putta Rajesh kumar*1, Somashekar shyale1, Mallikarjuna Gouda.M1, S.M.Shanta Kumar2

Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate tablets were formulated by directly compression and enteric coated with Acryl EZE. The rheological characteristics of powder beds were freely flowable and easily compressible. The Compressional parameters after enteric coating were found to be uniform and consistent. The hardness (Kg/cm2) was found in the range of 4.133±0.321 to 4.833±0.153. The enteric coated tablets were not disintegrated in simulated gastric fluid. The drug content in all formulations was found to be uniform and consistent. Accuracy and precision studies indicated drug content uniformity in tablet formulations. The acid uptake studies showed less than 5% acid uptake for all tablets indicated that the drug could be protected from degradation in gastric environment by acryl EZE enteric coating. In the In vitro drug release studies there is no loss during gastric phase. Later the study showed that tablets with lactose DC released higher than mannitol probably owing to its hydrophilicity and due to swelling of the super disintegrant. From the above findings it can conclude that an enteric coated Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate tablet dosage form could be developed to deliver the drug in to proximal small intestine for more bio availability and to treat peptic ulcer.

In the present work attempts were made to prepare fast dissolving tablets (FDT) of candesartan cilexetil by direct compression method with a view to enhance patient compliance. The synthetic and natural superdisintegrants used in this study were croscarmellose sodium, and plantago ovata mucilage. Tablets having superdisintegrant at different concentration (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg) level were prepared. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for uniformity of weight, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content, wetting time, in vitro dispersion time and in vitro dissolution study. Swelling index was also investigated with an aim to compare the swelling property of plantago ovata mucilage with synthetic superdisintegrant. Compare to croscarmellose sodium, plantago ovata mucilage showed the highest swelling index. Hence, the present work revealed that this natural superdisintegrant, plantago ovata mucilage showed better disintegrating property than the most widely used synthetic superdisintegrants in the formulation of fast dissolving tablets.

Original Research Article
Haroon Khan1, Muhammad Farid Khan1, Syed Umer Jan1, Kamran Ahmad Khan1, Kifayat Ullah Shah1 And Ameer Badshah3

Aluminium is an important metalloelement and has many medicinal uses like use of aluminum as an antacid. Thus it is interesting to study the effect of Aluminium on the glutathione (GSH) in vivo conditions. The concentration and time dependent effect of Aluminium on glutathione level in plasma was studied by using Ellman’s method. A drastic effect on decreasing the concentration of glutathione level in plasma was found by increasing the concentration of Aluminium sulphate over the time. The reason could probably be due to oxidation of GSH to corresponding disulphide (GSSG). In this paper the effect of Aluminium metal on thiol/GSH level was discussed in vitro, which in principal may present a model of in vivo reaction.

Short communication
*Tahira Mughal1, Samina Shahid 2 and Sadia Qureshi 3

In vitro studies were carried out to evaluate the antifungal activity of methanolic , pet ether and dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Withania coagulans and Tamarix aphylla against seven fungal strains (Trichoderma viridis ,Aspergillus flavus , Fusarium laterifum , Aspergillus fumigatus , Candida albicans , Trichophyton mentogrophytes and Microsporum canis). Assessment revealed that all extracts of Withania coagulans caused significant inhibition in biomass production of all test fungi (0.5mg/ml), while dichloromethane extract of Tamarix aphylla showed significant results (1.0mg/ml) against the tested fungal strains only.

Original Research Article
Satish Nayak, D. C. Goupale*, Atul Dubey and Vipin shukla

Metronidazole is commonly used for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori associated peptic ulcer. Though the Metronidazole is relatively stable with little degradation in aqueous phase but its stability is quite higher in non aqueous phase. The current article discusses about the improvement of stability of metronidazole in non aqueous vehicles which may be useful for the development of liquid formulations containing this drug. The stability study of the drug was carried out at different temperatures and relative humidity according to the ICH guidelines. It was found that the Metronidazole was about 3.7, 4.4, 4.8, 5.3 and 5.9 times more stable in 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100 % v/v propylene glycol solution as compared to aqueous solution at 400C and 75% RH.

Semisolid formulations of palm–olein were prepared using design of experiment (DoE) methodology. The influence of formulation aids (emulsifier) and the processing variables (mixing and cooling) were investigated on the physicochemical properties of the formulated systems. The stable semisolid appearance was the response variable. The systems were characterised by microscopy, DSC, Rheology, and XRD. The factorial design generated a matrix of 22 experiments to investigate physicochemical properties of the systems. The systems formed stable semisolids (no syneresis), unstable semisolids showing syneresis or structured fluids, depending on the concentration of stearic acid and the preparation technique. The stable semisolids contained a-crystalline lamellar structure, not present in the unstable structured fluids. In addition, syneretic semisolids showed plate-like crystals, implying pressure sensitivity, associated with polymorphism in the stearic acid. The stable semisolids showed mixture of amorphous and crystalline stearic acid. In contrast, pure amorphous or crystalline stearic acid was present in the unstable semisolids and the structured fluids respectively (confirmed by XRD). Mode of mixing and the concentration of stearic acid appeared to be critical factors (p<0.01). DoE predicted a combination of factors to achieve stable semisolid systems. Confirmatory experiments yielded results within 1% of the predicted responses, demonstrating the reliability of the software.

Original Research Article
Iradat Hussain 1,2, Muhammad Ovais Omer2, Muhammad Ashraf2, Habib-Ur-Rehman2

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a hallmark of almost all neoplastic and non-neoplastic degenerative diseases. This process supports normal physiology as well as it contributes in progression of different diseases. Angiogenesis contributes in growth of tumor and progressive arthritis. Inflammatory mediators are involved in cancer induced angiogenic process. Cyclo-oxygenases promote these mediators which help in cell migration and endothelial cell spreading. To explore the role of diclofenac sodium in angiogenesis we have used in vitro Chorioallantoic membrane assay. A novel image probing system SPIP (scanning probe image processor) was utilized for assessment and quantification of structural changes in CAMs. Fourteen parameters of 3D surface roughness were also evaluated for quantification. Application of diclofenac sodium on Chorioallantoic membrane at day six of incubation (0.7% concentration of diclofenac sodium) showed anti-angiogenic effect. Results showed marked changes in architecture of CAMs, thinning of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels, reduction in surface roughness parameters, increase in kurtosis of surface, and decrease in Abbott curve. The substantial quantities of diclofenac sodium use locally may exhibit anti-angiogenic activity in the same manner those seen in in-vitro and explain its clinical efficacy.

Review Article
Sadia Qureshi1, M. Sohail Aslam2, Qasim Mehmood2, Muhammad Tahir Aziz3, MH Qazi2

Cancer is a complex disease and is difficult to treat. Until the early twentieth century, it was treated by surgical removal which later on was combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy. However advances in molecular biology and genetics lead to the establishment of virotherapy. The geneticmodification of oncolytic viruses have improved their tumorspecificity, targeted delivery and increased efficacy, leading to thedevelopment of new weapons for the war against cancer especially in those cancer patients in which tumor is inoperable. In this review, we describe the basis of oncolyticvirotherapy and how the genetically modified tumor-specific viruses are developed. Utility of oncolytic virotherapy to treat cancer, clinical trials and their success rate are also discussed. We conclude with current and future challenges in oncolyticvirotherapy and the safety concerns raised by the trialsconducted so far.

Original Research Article
Altaf M.A1.*, Imran A2. Sholapur H.P3

A new oral drug delivery system was developed utilizing both the concepts ofcontrolled release and mucoadhesiveness, in order to obtain a unique drug delivery system which could remain in stomach and control the drug release for longer period of time. Gastro-retentive beads of captopril were prepared by orifice ionicgelation method in 1:1 and 9:1 ratio of alginate along with mucoadhesive polymers viz; hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose, carbopol 934P, chitosan and cellulose acetate phthalate. The prepared beads were subjected for various evaluation parameters. The percentage drug content was found to be in the range of 59.4 - 91.9 percent forbeads. It was observed that as the alginate proportion was increased, the average size of beads also increased. Photomicrographs revealed that the beads were spherical in shape. Alginate-chitosan (9:1) beads showed excellent microencapsulation efficiency (89.7 percent). Alginate-Carbopol 934P exhibited maximum efficiency of mucoadhesion in 0.1 N HCl (44 percent for 1:1 and 22 percent for 9:1) at the end of 8 hours, whereas least mucoadhesion was observed with alginate-Cellulose acetate phthalate beads. The in vitro release studies were carried out in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid and the release were found to be more sustained with Alginate-chitosan beads (9:1) than Alginate-Carbopol 934P (1:1) beads. The alginate-cellulose acetate phthalate beads showed the better sustained release as compared to all other alginate-polymer combinations. Regression analysis showed that the release followed zero order kinetics in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2).

Original Research Article
Pramod Kumar*1, Devala Rao G2, Lakshmayya3, Ramachandra Setty S4

70% ethanol extract of tubers of Momordica tuberosa (TMT) showed the presence of saponins and triterpenoids. GC-MS analysis of the extract showed presence of 42 compounds with Isopulegol, a monoterpene and a steroid, Androstane as main constituents. Many fatty acid derivatives like myristic acid, margaric acid, oleic acid etc. were also present. The extract was then tested for its antiulcer activity using three different experimental models of ulcers in rats viz., aspirin, ethanol and pyloric ligation induced ulcers in rats. The LD50 in rat was 200mg/kg. One fifth and one tenth of maximum dose i.e.40 and 20mg/kg were used to assess the antiulcer activity. In pylorus ligation model, parameters like ulcer index, volume of gastric juice, free acidity, total acidity and pH were measured. The extract showed antiulcer activity in a dose dependant manner. The 40mg/kg dose reduced ulcer to an extent of 95% in aspirin model and 82% in pyloric ligation method. The results suggest the anti-ulcer activity of tubers of Momordica tuberosa, probably due to its antioxidant nature.

Original Research Article
Tasnim Farasat1, Tahira Mughal2, Sidra Farooq1

The aim of this study was to investigate the thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and its regulatory hormone (TSH) levels in obese women with sedentary life style. The studied population consists of 180 female subjects of age group 20-45 years. The subjects were divided into three categories on the basis of body mass index: normal weight subjects (n= 60) overweight subjects (n=60) and obese subjects (n=60). Thyroid hormone levels were assessed by commercially available Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. It was observed that thyroid functionswere normal in range in all subjects but when comparison was done between the groups using one way ANOVA, the serum T3 concentration was significantly low in obese and overweight subjects in comparison with normal weight subjects (p = 0.005). Serum T4 concentration was significantly lowers in overweight and obese subjects in comparison to normal weight (p = 0.005). Serum TSH concentration was significantly higher in obese in comparison with normal weight (p = 0.005) while it was not significantly higher in overweight subjects (p = 0.05).

Original Research Article
Qamar Jamal Ahmad1, Hariprasanna R.C1, Upendra kulkarni1*, Basawaraj S.Patil1, Rabbani G1a

The aim of this study was to prepare bi-layer tablet of Lornoxicam (LOR) for the effective treatment of arthiritis. LOR was formulated as immediate release layer and sustained release layer using hydrophilic matrix (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose [HPMC K15M]). The effect of concentration of hydrophilic matrix (HPMC K15M), binder (polyvinyl- pyrollidone [PVP K30]) and dissolution study of sustained release layer showed that an increasing amount of HPMC or PVP K30 results in reduced Lor release. The most successful formulation of the study, exhibited satisfactory drug release in the initial hours, and the total release pattern was very close to the theoretical release profile. All the formulations exhibited diffusion-dominated drug release.

Original Research Article
WAQAS KHAN KAYANI1*, FAIZA RASHEED2, ADEEL MAHMOOD3, ADIL KHAN KAYANI4

In the study, the residual effect of farmyard manure (FYM) given to previous wheat was evaluated on the next maize crop. A three-crop based experiment maize (control)-wheat-maize from summer 2007 (Kharif) to summer 2008 (Kharif) was performed. Standard dose of FYM was given to the field of intermediate wheat crop. Different NP doses were applied in the four treatments. Residual effect of FYM was estimated out on seven parameters viz; plant height (cm), ear height (cm), cob length (cm), grain row/cob, grains/row, 1000 grains weight (gm) and grain yield/plot (kg). All the parameters exhibited significant results after FYM application except grains/row. Except the ear length, replications remained non-significant. Plant height, cob length and grain yield/plot exhibited fairly significant results with different treatments, while other four parameters remained non-significant. No interaction found between treatments, and before and after FYM application except in 1000 grains weight. Overall 21.37% increase in grain yield/plot was observed. We suggest the application of N 90 kg ha-1 + P 60 kg ha-1 (T2) and N 120 kg ha-1 + P 80kg ha-1 (T3) with standard dose of FYM (6000 kg ha-1) on the previous crop to get better yield of upcoming maize crop in arid regions of Pakistan.

Original Research Article
Vinay Wamorkar*1, Pendota Santhosh1, Manjunth S. Y. 1, Rajmohommed M.2

In present investigation the sustained release matrix tablet of naproxen was formulated to study effect various grades of HPMC and insoluble filler. The model is based on a novel dosage form designed to deliver a drug into the gastrointestinal tract in a controlled manner. Matrix tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. As a pre-requisite and part of pre-formulation studies, drug along with selected excipients and as optimized formulation was subjected to FT-IR studies. It was found that no interaction among excipients occurred, as no extra peaks obtained. Tablets were evaluated for various IP-QC tests like hardness, friability, content uniformity, physical appearance and in-vitro release by USP paddle apparatus. Model equations of zero and first order,Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell and Peppas,intended to elucidate the drug release mechanism, were fitted to the release data. Mathematical modeling of in-vitro dissolution data indicated the best-fit release kinetics was achieved with firstorder release kinetics with r2 vales of 0.915, which evidenced that the formulations are useful for a controlled release of naproxen. Simultaneously, from Hixson-Crowell equation shape dependency was also studied with r2 values of 0.973. By Peppas equation the value of r2 for optimized formulation was found to be 0.563and for n value of 0.603. This indicates the release from formulated tablet follows Non-Fickian release mechanism.

The present work describes the microbial examination of six samples of bottled water collected from Defence market of Lahore. Six samples (Wah, Classic, Nestle, Askari, Aqua Safe, and Sparkletts) were analyzed for total viable count and coliform count. The serial dilution such as 10-2 was prepared for the study of microbial load. The pour plate method was employed for the estimation of microorganisms. The total viable count ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 16.80 x 102 TVC/ml. The results reported are the average of three replicates. The MPN method was employed for the detection of coliform. The coliform bacteria were not detected in any of the bottled water sample. It was however; found that total viable count of all bottled water samples was much higher than the IBWA and PCRWR standards. The microbial quality of bottled water samples were not up to the mark because samples were showing higher bacterial count so it will effect on the health of the consumer.

Original Research Article
Saima Qasim1, Uzma Saleem2, Bashir Ahmad1, Muhammad Tahir Aziz3, M. Imran Qadir2, Saeed Mahmood4, Khurram Shahzad1

Pamidronate, Zoledronic acid, Efficacy, Pharmacoeconomics, Multiple myeloma

Original Research Article
Papiya Bigoniya1, A.C. Rana2

Euphorbia neriifolia, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, laxative, antiulcer

Original Research Article
Tahira Mughal1, Ismat Naeem2, Muhammad Tahir Aziz3, Afshan Ahsan1

Salsola kali is an annual herb, found near the Bahawalpur (Cholistan desert) South Punjab, Pakistan. Extract of aerial part of the plant in methanol was tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans and Sarcina lutae. Methanol was found to be best antimicrobial solvent. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of methanolic extract was determined and found to be bactericidal in concentration of 0.5 µg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, S. pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus mutans. Synergistic antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested with respective solvent extracts of aerial parts of the Heliotropium strigosum, Galium asperuloides and Senecio chrysanthemoides synergistically showed best antibacterial activity against all the bacteria (0.5 µg/ml). The extract of Salsola kali and the methanolic extract of Galium asperuloides showed best activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus mutans (0.5µg/ml). Synergistically Salsola kali with Senecio chrysanthemoides showed best activity against all the bacterial strains (0.5µg/ml) except S. lutae and S. mutans . Salsola kali with Heliotropium strigosum showed best activity against E. coli, S. pneumoniae, B. subtilis, S. lutae and S. mutans (0.5µg/ml) and inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Original Research Article
Tahira Mughal1, Ismat Naeem2, Sadia Qureshi 3, Ammara Abass2

Heliotropium sterigosum, antibacterial activity, synergistic activity, Withania coagulans, Pinus roxburgii and Hypericum perforatum.

Research brief
Arifa Tahir1, Sidra Zahid1, Bushra Mateen1, Tasnim Farasat1, Tahira Mughal2

In the present study, the propagation of a newly isolated Gliocladium viride ZIC2063 for maximum mycelium formation is checked. This is the first report on the optimization of Gliocladium viride ZIC2063 cultural conditions to get high mycelium concentrations that is to be used in further biosorption process. The mould mycelium was exploited as biosorbent. The present study was designed to optimize culture medium and other cultural conditions (pH, temperature, incubation time, inoculum age and size) for the growth of fungal culture as biosorbent. The amount of mycelium was doubled due to optimization. The Gliocladium viride ZIC2063, being high chromium resistant, thermostable and acid stable, can find application in the treatment of tanning effluent of leather industry and combating

Original Research Article
Fouzia Khursheed1, Khalil-ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar2, M. Zahoor-ul-Hassan Dogar3, Bilal Khalil1

Antilipidemic activity was measured by estimating the levels of lipidemic markers such as total, HDL & LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, before and after treatment with Gemmo and extracts from native plants. It was observed that antilipidemic activity were more efficient in Gemmo treated groups as compared to natively treated animals. Moreover, Gemmo extracts exerted significant antilipidemic effect in isoproterenolinduced myocardial infarction by maintaining the level of total, HDL & LDL cholesterols and triglycerides. Antilipidemic activity of Withania somnifera might be due to alkaloids and special compounds called Withanolides. It is conceivable that that these plant constituents are probably more active in form of Gemmo-extracts than in the native form.

Original Research Article
Farzana Chowdhary 1, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool 2

The present study was conducted for the isolation and characterization of gymnemic acid from indigenous Gymnema sylvestre leaves. Four different methods of extraction were employed to obtain the maximum yield. The method where the defatted leaves were extracted under continuous hot extraction in Soxhlet apparatus with 95% ethanol gave the maximum yield of gymnemic acid (6.15% m.f.b.). The yield was minimum in aqueous extraction method (1.66% m.f.b.) Gymnemic acid was purified by preparative chromatographic method in two solvent systems. Its circular Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) also resulted in to a single concentric ring. Gymnemic acid was hydrolyzed by two methods to confirm its glycosidic nature. The glycon portion thus obtained gave a positive test with Fehling’s solution showing the presence of reducing sugars and indicating that gymnemic acid was a glycoside. The aglycone portion on thin layer chromatographic examination in two systems showed the presence of four genins. Therefore the gymnemic acid was a glycoside and was triterpenoid saponins in character. The resinous extract obtained on defatting the leaves with the petroleum ether in first method of extraction separated out in to four spots on TLC. The presence of stigmasterol, -amyrin, -amyrin acetate and lupeol was indicated when the reference samples of these compounds were run on the same chromatoplate.

Original Research Article
M. Zahoor-ul-Hassan Dogar1*, M. Salman Akhtar2, Shafqat Siddique Ansir3and M. Shoaib Akhtar4

In this investigation three different spectrophotometric methods have been compared to estimate ascorbic acid contents of various human body fluids. For this purpose twenty blood and urine samples were collected from middle aged adult subjects and preserved by the recommended methods. The 1st batch was analyzed by three methods for the ascorbic acid contents and the same methods were applied to the samples with added ascorbic acid in the 2nd batch of blood and in urine samples 3rd batch, taken from the same subjects. The results obtained have showed that all three test methods were valuable and applicable equally for blood and urine samples. Among these, the modified method of Roe and Keuther as described by Nino and Shah (1986) has been found the best in this regard. The percentage recovery from blood samples with added ascorbic acid was excellent with this method. For determining ascorbic acid in urine samples, above method again showed considerably better results. It is, therefore, conceivable that from the view point of sensitivity and specificity, the method modified has shown promising results for its application in human biological fluids.

The present study describes the ethanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses by locally isolated yeast strain. Ten yeast strains were isolated from soil and cultured in 15% molassess medium. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bio-07 gave maximum productivity (52.0g/L). Fermentation conditions were optimized for maximum production of ethanol. Maximum yield of ethanol (76.8 g/L) was obtained with 15% molasses concentration, 3% inoculum size, pH 4.5 and temperature 30 º C. Potassium Ferrocyanide (150ppm) was used to control the trace metals present in the molasses medium.

Research reports
Tasneem Farasat 1, Tahira Mughal 2, Alyesha Bilal1, Fakhar-un-Nisa1

Microbial assessment of waste effluents from dairy industry revealed the presence of gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. Maximum percentage of E.coli was observed in milk and yogurt waste as compared to cheese and butter waste effluent. There is significant difference in number of bacterial colonies among dairy waste effluents. Some strains of E.coli are pathogenic and can cause serious health effects to humans by direct or

Original Research Article
Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash1, Ikram Ullah Khan1, Syed Nisar Hussain Shah2, Sajid Asghar1, Asif massud1, Muhammad Imran Qadir1, Atif akbar3

Hydrophilic matrices of xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were prepared by direct compression using diclofenac sodium as model drug. All formulations were subjected to physical tests, FTIR studies and dissolution studies at pH 1.2 and 6.8, to evaluate drug release kinetics. In vivo studies were carried out in rabbits using single latin cross over design and pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by using one way ANOVA and LSD. Physical parameters of all formulations were within limits with stability of drug during direct compression and absence of drug polymer interaction as evident by FTIR spectra. In vitro release studies showed that both polymers were able to retard the drug release but matrices containing XG showed initial greater burst release in acidic media (pH 1.2) which was absent in HPMC matrices due to delayed hydration and pH independent gelling mechanism in HPMC. XG matrices showed greater sustained release pattern in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8) over twenty-four hours of study due to formation of gel and viscous solution around matrices. All the formulation followed Higuchi kinetics and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation confirms the involvement of multiple drug release mechanisms release from hydrophilic matrices. Plasma drug concentration in rabbits after oral administration was used to calculate different pharmacokinetic parameters, which showed the inverse relationship of the AUC, AUMC and Cmax of the drug with polymer concentrations. Statistical evaluation confirms the role of polymer concentration on delayed release. XG matrices demonstrated fewer time to reach Tmax, higher Cmax and AUC0-8 values as compared to batches formulated with HPMC, owing to burst release of drug from XG matrices in acidic media. Both formulations showed poor IVIVC due to in vitro and in vivo difference of pH and ionic strength.

It is generally acknowledged that autoimmune diseases are more prevalent in females all over the world. These diseases are caused by interaction of genetic and environmental factors that result in the failure of immune mechanisms responsible for self-tolerance. Naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Treg) prevent autoimmune diseases; nevertheless, gender is one of the important factors that reacts differently to the immune response and therefore constitutes a distinctive potential target for immunotherapy. The aim of the study was to enumerate Treg in healthy adult males and females, to find the difference in their frequency between the two genders and to correlate with the established value. Treg levels in peripheral blood of 97 young healthy males and females were determined using flowcytometery. Mann Whitney rank sum test was applied to estimate the significance of gender related difference. Significant difference was observed in Treg percentages, p-value < 0.020 showing that there is lower Treg percentage in females than in males (2.89 % ± 1.46 Vs 3.32 % ± 1.39). The modified Treg number could render females more prone to autoimmune diseases. The reference ranges of white blood cells have been well laid out for western countries and the same values are being used in Pakistan. The use of these reference values might be misleading since the expected normal values may vary depending upon the race or the geographical region. The estimated values in the present study may contribute to the correct determination of reference values in south Asia and in close proximity regions.

Original Research Article
Bashir Ahmad1, Uzma Saleem2, Farman Matloob Khan1, Alia Erum3, Maqsood Alam4, Saeed Mahmood5

This study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of high dose aspirin in rabbits. Healthy rabbits were made diabetic by injecting 150mg/kg body weight of Alloxan, in normal saline solution. intravenously in the marginal ear vein for seven days. The rabbits with serum glucose levels greater than 200mg/dl were considered as diabetic and used in this study. High dose aspirin (120mg/kg) p.o. showed maximum decrease in serum triglyceride level (42.07%), serum total cholesterol level (19.36%), and serum LDL level (6.18%). Glibenclamide showed decrease in fasting blood glucose level 56.31% as compared to high dose aspirin (23.91%). In the light of these results, it is suggested that such study should be carried out in human beings to make use of agents having S inhibitory activity of kappa Kinase Beta (IKKß) pathway, which will provide a novel approach for treatment of diabetes- associated hyperlipidaemia.

Research reports
Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar1, Sehrish Ali1, Sajid Bashir1 and Naheed Abbas2

The study was designed to determine the blood glucose response of six different snakes/meals including chapatti + egg, chicken patty and pizza from three different local bakeries and pizza makers of Faisalabad, Pakistan. The approximate analysis of six different test meals was done for determination of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, ash and fibre contents. A group of 6 normal and 6 diabetic human volunteers were selected and given the test and control meals randomly. The volunteers were fed different meals containing 50g carbohydrates portion, the blood sample of diabetic volunteers were taken finger pricks at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes and normal volunteers 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 minutes and glycaemic index were calculated by standard formula. Results obtained in present study have suggested that all four test pizzas and chicken patty have very high glycaemic indices. It is therefore suggested that diabetic patients and high-risk families should not take all the test pizzas and chicken patty in their daily routine.

Original Research Article
Tahira Mughal, Alyia Mamona, Zeb Saddiuqe, Sadia Qureshi and Sana Mehboob

Euphorbia prostrata, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia splendens, Ricinus communis and Jatropha integearrima (Family: Euphorbiaceae) were selected to explore the phytochemical and pharmacognostical properties. Species of Euphorbiaceae are extensivley used as remedies against several diseases and complaints such as cancer, diabetes, diarrhoea, heart diseases, hemorrhages, hepatitis, jaundice, malaria, ophthalmic diseases, rheumatism and scabies etc. The dried leaves of Euphorbia splendens, Ricinus communis and Jatropha integearrima and dried whole plants of Euphorbia prostrata and Euphorbia hirta extracted with methanol. The Phytochemical screenings was done to identify the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, phytosterol, phenol, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phlobatannins that is helpful in the confirmation of the authenticity of the plants.

The present study was conducted for the detection and measurement of calcium levels in indigenous medicinal plants using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A total 14 plants were selected from families Umbelliferae, Leguminosae and Boraginaceae. The range of calcium concentration varied from the highest of 103.972mg/g to the lowest of 5.172mg/g in all the plants analyzed. Onosma bracteatum leaves (103.972mg/g) and Onosma echioides roots (91.159mg/g) have the highest calcium contents whereas it was the lowest in Tamarindus indica fruit (5.172mg/g). Calcium concentrations were highest in family Boraginaceae followed by Umbelliferae and Leguminosae, respectively. The calcium contents of Onosma bracteatum leaves from family Boragnaceae were highest (103.972mg/g) and they were the lowest (6.384mg/g) in Cordia latifolia fruit. Ferula foetida resin from the family Umbelliferae had the highest calcium contents (56.803mg/g) followed by Carum bulbocastanum seeds (25.083mg/g) and Foeniculum vulgare seeds (20.170mg/g), respectively. Within the family Leguminosae, Glycyrrhiza glabra root had the highest (21.990mg/g) whereas Tamarindus indica fruit had the lowest (5.172mg/g) calcium contents. Based on the results it is concluded that indigenous medicinal plant commonly used in local system of medicine had high concentrations of calcium and can be used as natural source of calcium.

Original Research Article
Uzma Saleem, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool, Bashir Ahmad, Waqas Sadiq, Saeed Mahmood, Muhammad Saleem1, Alia Erum

Combating the problem of microbial resistance is one of the major challenges the medical sciences facing today. Inhibition of resistance mechanism in bacteria seems much better approach than developing new antibiotics only. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of different concentrations of prochlorperazine in increasing the effectiveness of fluoroquinolones against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The bacteria were isolated from indigenous sources and identified through cultural characteristics, Grams’ staining and biochemical tests. The master suspensions were subjected to viable count and inoculated at the rate of 106 CFU/ml of the media for antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The four fluoroquinolones i.e. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, pefloxacin and norfloxacin were first applied to bacterial cultures alone and then in combination with four different concentrations (16µg/ml, 32µg/ml, 64µg/ml and 128µg/ml) of prochlorperazine and inhibition of growth was recorded in terms of diameter of zones of inhibition. A linear relationship was found between the increase in concentration of prochlorperazine and diameter of zones of inhibition against all the fluoroquinolones. The diameter of zones of inhibition were significantly (p<0.05) greater with 128µg/ml of prochlorperazine in combination with all the four fluoroquinolones against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. In contrast E. coli showed significant susceptibility (p<0.05) only to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in the presence of prochlorperazine. It was concluded that prochlorperazine is capable of increasing the susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and E coli when used in combination with different fluoroquinolones. This approach of hindering the resistance mechanism of bacteria with non-antibiotics can shift many of the resistant strains of bacteria to susceptible.

Original Research Article
Tahira Mughal, Arifa Tahir, Sadia Qureshi, Taha Nazir, Mahwish Rasheed

Tea is the most common beverage after it is extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinenesis. It is classified in to fermented tea (Black Tea) and non-fermented tea (green tea). Methanolic extract of tea diluted in methanol and ethanol, which were tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans. Methanol was found to be best antimicrobial solvent. The MIC value of methanolic extracts of Black Tea diluted in ethanol was 0.1 mg/ml. Synergistic results of antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts (diluted in ethanol) were found poor. Synergistic activity of Black tea sample with antibiotics (Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Levofloxacin and Gentamycin) showed best response against most of the bacteria (0.1mg/ml).

Original Research Article
Asif Farooq Awan, Muhammad Ashraf, Owais Umer, Taha Nazir, Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Habib ur Rehman

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Original Research Article
Tahir Aziz, Sadia Qureshi, Tahir Mughal, Gul Afshan

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Original Research Article
Taha Nazir, Mazhar Mustafa, Muhammad Owais Omer, Suraj Abraham, Furqan Khurshid Hashmi, Nida Taha, Muhammad Shoaib Zafar

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Original Research Article
Naeem Qaiser, Bshir Ahmad Chaudhary, Altaf Dasti, Addul Malik, Rahan Zafar

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Original Research Article
Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Sidra ul Mantaha, Taha Nazir, Marium Salman, and Attiya Aslam

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Case study
Addullah Omer, Naeem Qaiser, Naeem Akhtar, Safyan Tariq and Muhammad Ansar

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Editor in Chief
Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck (Philipps-Universität Marburg)
Marburg, Germany

Bibliography

Welcome to the research group of Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck in Marburg. Cornelia M. Keck is a pharmacist and obtained her PhD in 2006 from the Freie Universität (FU) in Berlin. In 2009 she was appointed as Adjunct Professor for Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Nanotechnology at the University Putra Malaysia (UPM) and in 2011 she obtained her Venia legendi (Habilitation) at the Freie Universität Berlin and was appointed as a Professor for Pharmacology and Pharmaceutics at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern. Since 2016 she is Professor of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics at the Philipps-Universität Marburg. Her field of research is the development and characterization of innovative nanocarriers for improved delivery of poorly soluble actives for healthcare and cosmetics. Prof. Keck is executive board member of the German Association of Nanotechnology (Deutscher Verband Nanotechnologie), Vize-chairman of the unit „Dermocosmetics“ at the German Society of Dermopharmacy, active member in many pharmaceutical societies and member of the BfR Committee for Cosmetics at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).

Journal Highlights
Abbreviation: J App Pharm
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/19204159
Frequency: Annual 
Current Volume: 9 (2017)
Next scheduled volume: December, 2018 (Volume 10)
Back volumes: 1-9
Starting year: 2009
Nature: Online 
Submission: Online  
Language: English

Subject & Scope
  • Pharmaceutics
  • Physical Pharmacy 
  • Dosage Forms Science 
  • Pharmaceutical Microbiology & Immunology 
  • Industrial Pharmacy 
  • Bio-Pharmaceutics 
  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry 
  • Pharmaceutical Instrumentation 
  • Medicinal Chemistry 
  • Pharmacognosy 
  • Physiology &Histology 
  • Anatomy & Pathology 
  • Pharmacology & Therapeutics 
  • Pharmacy Practice 
  • Pharmaceutical Mathematics   
  • Biostatistics 
  • Dispensing 
  • Community Social & Administrative Pharmacy 
  • Hospital Pharmacy 
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