Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences


ISSN: 1925-7430
Short Key Title: Can J App Sci
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/19257430
Start Year: 2011

MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY TRADITIONAL HEALERS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
Sonia Imtiaz, Sahar Abdullah, Saima Afzal, Gohar Rehman, Mamoona Waheed
1. Faculty of Pharmacy, University Of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 Pakistan 2. Faculty of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan
Keywords: Ethno medicine; Hakim; Indigenous knowledge; Traditional Healers.
Abstract

This study is aimed to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional healers of Punjab, Pakistan. The medicinal uses were documented by semi structured interview of the registered herbalists & relevant literatures were also reviewed. The data was collected by visiting the study area from Feb 2013 to August 2013. All traditional plants having therapeutic activity were crosschecked with existing literature on ethno botany. In our data about 150 indigenous plant species, which belongs to 55 families were documented along with their local names, part used and the use value of each species. This Data showed that highest number of plants used by local community belongs to Asteraceae Family. In our data Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels has the highest use value that is 1 and the plants with lowest use value (0.2) are Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Ruellia tuberose L., Aerv javanica (Burm.f) juss. It is concluded from data that our study area possesses a variety of indigenous medicinal plants that are widely used by hakims, herbalists for primary health care of local community of Province Punjab, Pakistan.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
Year:2013
Volume:3
First Page:113
Last Page:132
Publisher Id:CanJAppSci (2013 ). 3. 113-132
Article History:
Received:August 20, 2013
Accepted:September 25, 2013
Collection year:2013
First Published:October 1, 2013

INTRODUCTION:

Medicinal plants and extracts of medicinal plants play a basic role in the traditional health care system for human beings [1]. Ethno medicine is a field of medicine which deals with the study of traditional plants to treat different ailments by indigenous people [2]. In our system, a lot of work is required to be done to assess the medicinal uses of plants because in Pakistan only hakims and herbalists are associated with plants for medicinal purposes [3][4][5].Traditional medicines has been the main source of primary health care for poor communities since indefinitely ancient times. About 80% populations from developing countries depend on traditional medicinal practice for their basic health care requirements [6] [7]. These were widely used in Pakistan due to less side effects & easily accessibility of these medicinal plants from nature [8]. Traditional medicines are major source for new inventions in allopathic treatments. Evaluation of many traditional plants on scientific basis has proven to contribute a lot of potent novel drugs [9] [10].

 The indigenous knowledge of traditional plants is rapidly disappearing due to less documentation and changes in traditional culture[11][12].The people in rural areas use about 90% of the traditional plants for medicinal purposes[13].

Pakistan is a country which is blessed with rich plant biodiversity. It possesses more than 6000 flowering plant species [14]. There are about 600 – 700 plants which are used as traditional medicine in Pakistan [15]. Only few studies have been conducted to explore the medicinal uses of traditional plants [16]. Due to the significant importance of indigenous medicinal plants flora, this study was conducted to collect and document Ethno medicinal use and indigenous knowledge about the medicinal plants of Punjab, Pakistan.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Choice of study area

Ethno medicinal survey was conducted in nine districts of Punjab, Pakistan which were randomly selected namely Sargodha, Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Rawalpindi, Sahiwal, Multan, Gujrat, and Faisalabad from Feb 2013 to August 2013 to document the traditional plants used by registered herbalists.


Fig 1:   Map of Punjab, Pakistan; Location of the province of Punjab in Pakistan [20]

Collection & Identification of Traditional Plant Species

Description of study area:

Punjab is the 2nd largest province of Pakistan. It Comprises of 205,344 km2 area and is located b/w latitudes 27.42º and 34.02ºN & longitudes 69.81º and 75.23º E at the northwestern edge of the geological Indian plate in South Asia. It comprises fertile river valleys [18]. Its land is largely irrigated with a number of canals. Favorable weather changes occur in this area. In Punjab, all soil types are found [17] [18]. 70 million populations have been estimated in Punjab [19]. Fig 1 shows map of Punjab, Pakistan.

The data was collected by personally visiting the  study area and  from Feb 2013 to August 2013. The medicinal uses were documented by semi structured interview of the registered herbalists & relevant literatures were also reviewed. All traditional plants having therapeutic activity were crosschecked with existing literature on ethno botany. The medicinal plants were identified and confirmed with the help of Flora of Pakistan [21] [22] [23].

Data Analysis

The relative signi?cance of each traditional plant species having indigenous medicinal uses by indigenous people was determined by calculating its use value [24].

 Use value for species i; UVi =? µi/Ni.

Here, number of use reports told by each participant for a respective traditional plant species,” i is denoted  by µi” &  total number of participant  interviewed for a respective plant species,” i is denoted by Ni.


RESULTS & DISCUSSION

In Table 1, 150 indigenous plant species which belongs to 55 families are mentioned along with their local names and the use value of each species. Only one indigenous plant species of Alliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Bombaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cannabinaceae, Capparidaceae, Combretaceae , Crassulaceae, Cuscutaceae, Cyperaceae, Liliaceae, Menispermaceae, Oxalidaceae, Orobanchacea, Papaveraceae, Pinaceae, Pontederiaceae, Punicaceae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae , Salvadoraceae, Sapindaceae, Tamaricaceae, Typhaceae and Zygophyllaceae families was used commonly in study area for medicinal purposes. 2 species of Acanthaceae, Arecaceae, Lamiaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Portulacaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae and Tiliaceae families, 3 plant species of Aizoceae, Apiaceae, Asphodelaceae, Brassicaceae, Convolvulaceae, Myrtaceae, 4 of Apocynaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, 5 of Malvaceae, Mimosaceae, 6 indigenous plant species of family Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae, Solanaceae , 7 of Boraginaceae, Moraceae, 8 of Poaceae , 9 of Asclepiadaceae and 12 indigenous plant species of family of Asteraceae were used for medicinal purposes. According to a previously conducted study in Gujranwala, most commonly used medicinal plants belong to Asteraceae Family [25]. Our Data showed the same results enumerating that highest number of plants used by local community belongs to Asteraceae Family.

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels has the highest use value that is 1, then the following indigenous plants as Aloe vera (L.), Mentha spicata L., Azadirachta indica (Linn.)A. Juss., Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile , Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.ex DC , Psidium guajava L., Punica granatum L., Zizyphus nummularia (Burm.f) Wight and Arn., Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f., Withania somnifera L. have high value that is 0.9, and the rest have lower use value then above mentioned plants. In our data the plants with lowest use value (0.2) are Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. Ruellia tuberose L., Aerv javanica (Burm.f) juss.

Table 1: Indigenous plant species with their family names, local name, medicinal uses and their respective use values.

Sr No.

Family

Botanical name

Common name

Part use

Ethno medicinal use

Use value

1.

Amaranthaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

Achyranthes aspera L

Puth Kanda, Chaff Plant

 

Whole Plant

 

kidney problems, diuretic ,heart & skin problems, ulcers and cough & root decoction is used for syphilis, purgative

0.4

      ii.             

Aerva javanica(Burm.f)juss.

Booeen

Whole plant

Inflammation

0.2

    iii.             

Althernanthera punjens

Haglon

leaves , Fruits

Itching

0.5

     iv.             

Amaranthus graecizans subsp. Sylvestris

Phulari

Leaf

Gonorrhea, Inflammation, Piles,

 

0.7

       v.             

Amaranthus viridis

L.

 

Chulai,Ghunar

Whole plant

Rheumatoid arthritis, leacorrhea, piles, Emollient & Carminative

0.6

     vi.             

Digera arvensis L.

Tandla

Leaf

 cure weak bones,

Infections

0.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.

Acanthaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees

Chanin

leaves

Tonic

0.4

      ii.             

Justicia adhatoda L.

Baekr

leaf , Fruits

Cough, cold, ?u, fever Sore throat, , Toothache

0.8

3.

Aizoaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

Ruellia tuberose L.

Traino

Whole plant

Blood purifier

0.2

      ii.             

Trianthema

portulacastrum L

Itsit

Whole plant

Anthelminthic ,Liver infection, Asthma & Diuretic ,constipation

0.8

 

    iii.             

 

Zaleya pentandra(Linn)Jeffrey

Kali itsit

Whole plant

Snake bite, abortion

0.7

4.

Alliaceae

Allium sativum L.

Thom

Whole plant

Blood pressure, hypertension, cardiac problems Respiratory problems

 

0.7

5.

Anacardiaceae

Mangifera indica L.

 

Aam, Mango

 

Leaf and Seed

 

Ear pain & antiemetic

0.8

6.

Annonaceae

Polyalthia longifolia

Ulta ashok

Leaves, Root, stem

diabetes, hypertension, skin diseases, Fever & antihelminthic

0.8

7.

Apocynaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

 

 Alstonia scholares(L.)    R.Br.

 

Chhatiwan, satpatia (S).

Bark, Leaves

asthma, headache, lactation enhancer, ulcer, antipyretic,

diarrhea ,dysentery  &spasmodic activity

0.6

      ii.             

 

Catharanthus roseus

Sada Bahar

Leaf

Diabetes

 

0.7

    iii.             

 

Nerium Oleander

Mill.

Kanhera, Oleander

Root

Toothache, Abortion Earache

0.6

     iv.             

 

Plumaria obtuse

 

Chelota

Flower

Antipyretic & Skin diseases

0.5

8.

Apiaceae

Foeniculum vulgare

Miller

Saunf

Fruit

Purgative, Gas troubles Laxative, Carminative improve eyesight ,Kidney problems

0.8

9.

Arecaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

 

Phoenix dactylifera L.

Khajur

Fruit

Body weakness

 

0.8

      ii.             

 

Syngonium podophyllum

 

Nephthytis

Leaves

cancer , for mouth and feet diseases.

0.7

10.

Asclepiadaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

 

Artemisia scoparia

Waldst and Kit.

Chaou

Whole plant

Malaria,

strengthen hairs

0.6

      ii.             

 

 

Calotropis procera (Aiton)          W.T. Aiton

 

Dasi Ak, Sodom’s Apple

Leaf, root

asthma ,Rheumatism, Dysentery, Expectorant Scabies, leprosy, antihelminthic

& pain

0.8

    iii.             

Caralluma edulis

 

Chonga

Whole plant

Anthelmintic, Diuretic action

0.6

     iv.             

Carthamus

oxyacantha M. Bieb

Pholi

Whole plant

Jaundice & Ulcer

0.5

       v.             

Eclipta prostrata (L.)

L.

Bhangra

Whole plant

Stop hair fall, Antiseptic, Emetic

Jaundice,

0.6

     vi.             

Parthenium

hysterophorus L.

Partha

Whole plant

Laxative, Diabetes

0.4

   vii.             

Periploca

aphylla Dcne.

 

Berri

Whole plant

Tumor, urticaria

0.7

 viii.             

 

Taraxacum of?cinale

Weber

Hund

Whole plant

Diabetes,

Constipation &

 Liver problems

0.5

     ix.             

Xanthium

strumarium L.

Chota dhatoora

Whole plant

Skin problems as eczema, diuretic Sedative

0.4

11

Asphodelaceae 

Aloe vera (L.)

Kwargandal

Leaf

Rheumatism, body weakness

And for

pimples

0.9

12

Asteraceae

 

 

 

 

 

          i             

 

Artemisia annua Linn

Jaho

Leaf

Blood prifier, fever & jaundice treatment

0.5

        ii             

 

Artemisia scoparia Waldst. &             Kit.

Jhahoo, Wormwood

Whole pant

purgative and in burns

0.5

      iii             

 

Artemisia vulgaris Linn

Tatwan

Whole plant

Cardiac problems

0.6

       iv             

 

Carthamus oxycantha M. Bieb.

 

Poli, Carthamus

 

Seed

Ulceritis

0.7

         v             

 

Carthamus tinctorius L.

Safflower

Flowers

and leaves

 

fever, throat problems ,cough and typhoid fever

0.7

       vi             

 

Conyza canadenisis Lin.

Horse weed,paleet

Whole plant

Inflammations, dysentery, diarrhea, bronchial catarrh ,

Cystitis,  haemostatic stimulant, astringent, diuretic &  asthma

0.6

     vii             

 

Echinops

echinatus Roxb

Lay, katara

Whole plant

Fever, pain, diuretic, jaundice & sexual disability.

0.4

   viii             

 

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk

Sofed Banghra

Leaf

hypersensitivity,

athlete’s foot & ringworm

0.2

       ix             

 

Vernonia scinerescens

 

Simbla

Leaves, Rhizomes

Gastritis, Male sterility problems, Urinary infections, ulcers and laxative

0.4

         x             

 

Launea procumbus

 

Bhatter

Whole plant

comon cold, flu, cough and wound infection, toothache, diabetes, laxative, intestinal disorders, gonorrhea and painful urination

 

0.3

       xi             

 

Saussurea hetromalla L.

Kali zri

Whole plant

Liver, kidney, respiratory diseases, tonic

0.6

     xii             

 

Xanthium strumarium Linn.

Chhota Dhatura, Cocklebur

Roots, fruit

and Seeds

Stomach problems demulcent,

smallpox & dysentery.

 

0.6

 

13

 

Brassicaceae

 

 

 

 

 

          i             

 

Cleome viscose

 

Leaves,

seeds, root

Wounds, earaches, ulcers carminative, stimulant & vesicant & anthelminthic,

 

0.5

        ii             

 

Eruca sativa Mill

Tara mira

Leaves, seeds

Skin diseases, diuretic, stimulant & lice killer

0.8

      iii             

 

Lepidium sativum L.

Haloon

Whole plant

Abdominal pain, dysentery, skin and blood disorders

0.4

14

Bombaceae

 

Bombax ceiba Linn.

 

Simbhal

Whole

Plant

Leucorrhoea, diarrhea, dysentery and astringent

0.6

15

Boraginaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

 

Cordia gharaf (Forssk.)

Ehren. Ex Asch.

Liyaar

 

Whole

Plant

Hepatitis,wound inf.

0.5

      ii.             

 

Cordia myxa Linn.

 

Lasora

Whole plant

Jaundice

0.7

    iii.             

 

Ehretia laevis Roxb.

 

koda

Whole plant

Diphtheria

0.6

     iv.             

 

Heliotropium

Crispum Desf.

Papal booti

Whole

Plant

Snake bite, eye infection

0.6

       v.             

 

Heliotropium

 Europaeum Linn.

Hathi sundhi

Whole

Plant

Hair fall problem

0.7

     vi.             

 

Heliotropium

strigosum Wild.

 

Whole

Plant

Blood puri?er, Diuretic, UTI

0.5

   vii.             

 

Trichodesma

indicum (L.) R. Br.

Kulfa

Whole plant

Fever Diarrhea, dysentery, rheumatism & Diuretic

0.8

16

Chenopodiaceae

Chenopodium album

L.

Bathu

Whole plant

Urinary problems, piles, worms & Laxative

Sexual problems, jaundice, cough & tonic

0.7

17

Cannabinaceae

Cannabis sativa L.

Bhung

Leaves

Narcotic, Sedative, intoxication, Diuretic, laxative ,Throat soreness ,Diarrhea

& loss of appetite

0.8

18

Capparidaceae

 

 

 

Crataeva adansonii  DC.

Berna

Whole plant

urinary bladder stones

 

0.5

19

Combretaceae

 

Terminalia chebula Retz.

Harar

Whole

Plant

 

Wound, Astringent, purgative, laxative and stomachic

 

0.7

20

Convolvulaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

 

Convolvulus arvensis

L.

Bahar bail, Leli / weli,

Vahri,

Whole plant

Anthelminthic, control dandruff, Emollient & stomach

Disorders, Constipation, and

Inflammations

0.6

      ii.             

 

Ipomoea eriocarpa

morning glory

Leaves,seeds

 menstrual pain,

headache, ulcers, fevers,

rabies.

0.6

    iii.             

 

Ipomea pentaphyllum

 

Beli

Leaves and Seeds

Skin diseases, Constipation & emesis

0.4

21

Crassulaceae

Bryophyllum

pinnatum (Lam.)

Oken

Zakhm-i-hayat

Whole plant

Remove kidney and bladder stone

 

0.5

22

Cucurbitaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

 

Benincasa hispida

(Thunb.) Cong.

Bhtha

Leaves

diuretic, laxative,

Anthelminthic & Epilepsy

0.5

      ii.             

 

Citrullus colocynthis

(L.) Schrad.

Tumma

Leaves

Purgative, amenorrhea,

stomach aches

Jaundice ,stop hair whitening

0.6

    iii.             

 

Cucumus melo var.

agrestis Naudin

Jngli kharboz, Chibbar

Fruit, leaves  and seed

Leucorrhea, Dysuria, digestive issues, skin infection, Laxative,

0.7

     iv.             

 

Cucurbita pepo L.

Kaddo

 

Helmenthesis

0.8

23

Cuscutaceae

Cuscuta re?exa

Roxb.

Neeli taar, Akash Bail, Dodder

Stem

Diabetes, Sexual problems, rheumatism Toothache, hair problems & paralysis

0.6

24

Cyperaceae

Cyperus rotundus L.

Deela

Rhizomes

Diuretic ,Diarrhea, pneumonia,

dysentery

Fever,

blood disorders, cholera ,diuretic, and stomachic

0.5

25

Euphorbiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

 

Euphorbia heliscopia

L.

Chattri Dhodak, Lun spurge

 

Whole plant

Purgative, Intestinal problems, Skin eruption

0.5

      ii.             

 

Euphorbia hirta L.

Aam dodak, Doddak

Leaves and inflorescence

 

Treatment of eye problems, Burns, injuries, bronchitis,

cough and asthma

Asthma, Expectorant,

 

0.7

    iii.             

 

Euphorbia prostrata L

Hazar daani

Whole plant

Skin diseases & itching

 

0.5

     iv.             

 

Euphorbia thymifolia L.

Choti dhodi

Whole plant

Antihelminthic, astringent, diarrhea, skin and stomach problems, laxative, & menorrhagia

0.6

       v.             

 

Euphorbia

tircucali L.

 

Sijh

Juice

purgative, vesicant, rheumatism ,

toothache, ear pain, cough and for asthma.

 

0.4

     vi.             

 

Ricinus communis L.

Hernoli, arind

Whole plant

arthritis, Scabies, Obesity, menses Stomach and

bowels problems

0.3

26

Fabaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

 

Cassia ?stula L.

Amaltas

Seed

Diarrhea &  Gastric problems,

0.7

      ii.             

 

Pongamia pinnata (Linn.)

 

 

Sukhechain

Whole plant

Vermifuge, Carminative, Toothache  & Rheumatism and skin diseases”

0.8

    iii.             

 

Rhyncosia minima

Jungli moath

Whole plant

after delivery bath

for body care

0.7

     iv.             

 

Tephrosia lupinifolia DC

Poison fish

Roots, Leaf, Stem, bark

Stomach ache, urinary disorders ,diarrhea,

rheumatism, & asthma

0.8

27

Lamiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

 

Mentha spicata L.

Podeena

Leaves

Antiseptic, Carminative, gastric & Diarrhea

0.9

      ii.             

 

Leucas aspera (Jacq.) Ait.

Jhumka booti

Leaves

Gastritis

 

0.7

28

 Liliaceae

 

Asparagus racemosus Wild

Satmuli

Roots

Mental

disorders, appetizer, diuretic, carminative, antispasmodic,

Diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia and rheumatism.

0.6

29

Malvaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

 

Abutilon indicum

(L.) Sweet.

Peeli Booti

Leaf and seed

Purgative ,toothache and inflammation

0.6

      ii.             

 

Azadirachta indica (Linn.)A. Juss.

Neem 

Leaf and fruit

Laxative, blood

puri?er &

skin inf

0.9

    iii.             

 

Bombax ceiba L .

 

Simbal

Flowers, Roots, bark and seeds

Gonorrhea, Dysentery, blood purifier, constipation, and snake bite

 

0.5

     iv.             

 

Hibiscus rosasinensis

L.

Chembarathi, Shoe Flower

 

Flower

Cardiac problems

 

0.5

       v.             

 

Malva parvi?ora L.

Sonchal, Mallow

 

Leaf and seed

Cold, ?u, cough, pyrexia & Laxative agent

0.8

30

Menispermaceae

 

Tinosporia cordifolia    (Willd.) Miers

Glow, Heart Leaved Moon Seed

Seed

Tuberculosis

0.5

31

Mimosaceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

 

Acacia modesta Wall

Phulahi

 

Bark and stem, leaves

Sexual problems ,Teeth problems & carminative

0.6

      ii.             

 

Acacia nilotica (L.)

Delile

Kekar

Pod

Gonorrhea ,Sexual disorders &

Diarrhea

0.9

    iii.             

 

Albizia lebbek

Benth.

Siris

 

Bark

tonic, Sexual disorders, Asthma Inflammations, cough, eye infections, abdominal tumors,  flu, gingivitis, lung problems, pectoral problems, hernia,  & blood puri?er

0.8

     iv.             

 

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.ex DC

Tali, Rosewood

 

Bark

 

Epistasis

0.9

       v.             

 

Prosopis cineraria L.

Jundh

Leaf

Leucorrhoea

0.6

32

Moraceae

 

 

 

 

 

        i.             

 

Eucalyptus globules

L.

Safaida

 

Flu, Sore throat  & common Cold

0.8

      ii.             

 

Ficus benghalensis L.,

 

Boher Banyan

Latex

Gonorrhea

0.7

    iii.             

 

Ficus benjamina

Weeping fig

Whole Plant

As Blood purifier

0.6

     iv.             

 

Ficus racemosa  Linn.

 

Gulhar

Fruits

astringent and carminative

0.7

       v.             

 

Ficus religiosa L.

 

 Peepal

Bark, Fruit, Seed

Asthma, urinary problems, constipation and emesis

0.7

     vi.             

 

Morus alba Linn.

 

Tut sufaid 

 

Whole

Plant

Liver problems & tonsils

0.8

   vii.             

 

Morus nigra L.

Mulberry,Kala toot

Fruit, leaves,

Root

Sore throat, cough, Stomach problem, Carminative &  blood puri?er

0.7

33

Myrtaceae