stones are used in different applications and under wide environmental
conditions, therefore their physical-mechanical properties must be in agreement
with known international standards . These international standards can be
different according the use of the stone and even with the country, but they
usually include the assessment of the fundamental properties, such as bulk
density, porosity and uniaxial compressive strength [6,7]. Some problems, as changes
in color, loss gloss and bowing were referred in weathered granites [2,4] and a
particular caution is required when such stones are used. Stone durability is
assessed trough performing ageing tests. These tests are implement to know the
stone behaviour under a specific environmental condition or even to assess the
efficacy of a protective treatment. In spite of the idea of endlessness of the
stones, under the wrong combination the life span can be drastically reduced
issues have an increasing importance though to the pronounced degradation of
some stone monuments. The assessment of the behaviour of the stone after
centuries exposed to the environmental conditions and anthropic aggressions
highlights the importance of the petrophysic and geomechanical researches in
order to avoid or mitigate the deterioration [9-11]. There are many examples of
rapid deterioration when the stone does not meet the physical-mechanical
standards, the stone mineralogy was not considered, or the building process was
stone researches play an important role in the dimension stone industry. In the
past the aesthetics and the block size determined the practice in dimension
stone exploration (Fig. 1), but nowadays several branches are included, such as
environment, safety, machinery, geology, geomechanics, petrophysics and
engineering geology [13-20]. All the players, from the extraction in quarries to
the different utilizations, are now more conscious about the complexity of the processes
related with the stone.
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LMO, Taherian G. How to Determine the Appropriate Methods for Identifying the
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Siegesmund S. Characterization and quality assessment of granitic building
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Harma P. Exploration methods for granitic natural stones – geological and
topographical aspects from case studies in Finland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland. 2014; 86:5–22.
S, Khan MA, Khan MR, Sousa LMO, Hameed F, Mughal MS, Niaz A. Building stone
evaluation—A case study of the sub-Himalayas, Muzaffarabad region, Azad
Kashmir, Pakistan. Engineering Geology.
2016; 209:56–69. Doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2016.05.007
DM, Fort R,Varas-Muriel MJ. Freeze-thaw
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8. Steiger M, Charola E, Sterflinger
K. Weathering and deterioration. In Siegesmund S, Snethlage R (eds), Stone in Architecture - Properties,
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9. Vázquez P, Acuña M, Benavente D,
Gibeaux S, Navarro I, Gomez-Heras M. Evolution of surface properties of
ornamental granitoids exposed to high temperatures. Construction and Building Materials. 2016; 104:263–275.
10. López-Arce P, Fort R, Gómez-Heras
M, Pérez-Monserrat E, Varas-Muriel MJ. Preservation strategies for avoidance of
salt crystallisation in El Paular Monastery cloister, Madrid, Spain. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2011; 63:1487–1509.
11. García-Talegón J, Iñigo A., Vicente-Palacios
V. A laboratory simulation of desalting on calcareous building stone with wet
sepiolite. Environmental Earth Sciences.
2016; 75:925. DOI 10.1007/s12665-016-5647-9
12. Panova EG, Vlasov DY, Luodes H. Evaluation
of the durability of granite in architectural Monuments. Geological Survey of Finland. 2014; Report of Investigation 214.
13. Careddu N, Lanceni G. The sawing
of granite blocks with gang-saw: strong points of the traditional technology. Marmomacchine. 2015; Sept:12-25
14. Pedreschi R. A feasibility study
of post-tensioned stone for cladding. Construction
and Building Materials. 2013; 43:225–232.
15. Bellopede R, Castelletto E,
Schouenborg B, Marini P. Assessment of the European Standard for the
determination of resistance of marble to thermal and moisture cycles: recommendations
for improvements. Environmental Earth
Sciences. 2016; 75:946. DOI 10.1007/s12665-016-5748-5
16. Martínez-Garrido MI, Fort R.
Experimental assessment of a wireless communications platform for the built and
natural heritage. Measurement. 2013;
17. Ioannidou D, Zerbi S, Habert G.
When more is better e Comparative LCA of wall systems with stone. Building and Environment. 2014; 82:628-639.
18. Verma DV, Vacek PM, Tombe K,
Finkelstein M, Branch B, Gibbs GW, Graham WG. Silica Exposure Assessment in a
Mortality Study of Vermont Granite Workers. Journal
of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 2011; 8(2):71-79. DOI:
J, Tejado JJ, Baeza A, Salas A, Muñoz-Muñoz JG. Environmental
impact of a granite processing factory as source of naturally occurring
radionuclides. Applied Geochemistry. 2014;
Dino GA, Passarella I,
Ajmone-Marsan F. Quarry rehabilitation employing treated residual sludge from
dimension stone working plant. Environmental
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