Rabia Tariq, Sadia Huma, Marriam Zaka Butt, Fatima Amin
Department of Pharmacy, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan
Keywords: Breast Cancer, Risk Factors

Breast cancer in women causes psychological and physical distress. It is the most commonly diagnosed female cancer in all cancers. Breast cancer is among the top 20 causes of deaths in Pakistan. It is believed that various factors such as gender, age, socioeconomic status, family history, physical activity, smoking, breastfeeding/lactation, no. of full term and incomplete pregnancies, hormonal and reproductive factors influence the incidence of breast cancer. A prospective as well as retrospective study was conducted on 100 patients in different hospitals of Lahore, aiming to evaluate risk factors leading to high prevalence of breast cancer in women. A questionnaire was designed to obtain patient history, patient complaint and management regarding disease. Females of all age groups were included in the study. The data collected was analyzed and presented in the form of graphs and tables. The results were derived and conclusion presented. Women with advanced age, having middle class family background, higher body mass index and a high ratio of incomplete pregnancies were at significantly increased risk of breast cancer. Obesity and the use of oral contraceptives are minor whereas family history, employment status, physical activity and smoking don’t serve as risk factors. The protective role of breastfeeding/lactation and full term pregnancies is suppressed and not very significant.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
First Page:27
Last Page:33
Publisher Id:JAppPharm (2013 ). 5. 27-33
Article History:
Received:November 23, 2012
Accepted:December 15, 2012
Collection year:2012
First Published:January 1, 2013

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Editor in Chief
Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck (Philipps-Universität Marburg)
Marburg, Germany


Welcome to the research group of Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck in Marburg. Cornelia M. Keck is a pharmacist and obtained her PhD in 2006 from the Freie Universität (FU) in Berlin. In 2009 she was appointed as Adjunct Professor for Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Nanotechnology at the University Putra Malaysia (UPM) and in 2011 she obtained her Venia legendi (Habilitation) at the Freie Universität Berlin and was appointed as a Professor for Pharmacology and Pharmaceutics at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern. Since 2016 she is Professor of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics at the Philipps-Universität Marburg. Her field of research is the development and characterization of innovative nanocarriers for improved delivery of poorly soluble actives for healthcare and cosmetics. Prof. Keck is executive board member of the German Association of Nanotechnology (Deutscher Verband Nanotechnologie), Vize-chairman of the unit „Dermocosmetics“ at the German Society of Dermopharmacy, active member in many pharmaceutical societies and member of the BfR Committee for Cosmetics at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).

Journal Highlights
Abbreviation: J App Pharm
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/19204159
Frequency: Annual 
Current Volume: 9 (2017)
Next scheduled volume: December, 2018 (Volume 10)
Back volumes: 1-9
Starting year: 2009
Nature: Online 
Submission: Online  
Language: English

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