Anam Maqsood, Farah Azhar
Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, G-7/4, 7th Avenue, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Keywords: Epilepsy, Phenobarbitone, Carbamazepine, Combination therapy

Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which a person has repeated seizures (convulsions) over time. There is geographic variation in the incidence of epileptic syndromes likely to be associated with genetic and environmental factors, although as yet causality has not been fully established. The complete range of etiologies in the general population is not known. Few predictors of outcome are recognized and it is difficult to prognosticate in any individual case. Knowledge is patchy about the epidemiology of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Future epidemiological research needs to address these issues if we are to progress. A 21 years old male with epilepsy came to the local hospital, Rawalpindi with chief complaints of body stiffness , unconsciousness, constipation and unable to swallow food for 16 days. His physical examination showed blood pressure 110/70 mm Hg, pulse 80 per minute, temperature a febrile.. On the basis of his physical and medical examination, the physician prescribed tablet Phenobarbitone 15mg oral BID (two times a day); tablet Tegral® (carbamazepine) 200 mg oral BID; tablet Famot® (famotidine) 40 mg oral TDS (three times a day). Prescribed doses of Famotidine and Carbamazepine are according to the reference book recommendations but dose of Phenobarbitone is found to be less than recommendations of reference book. The main protocol of treatment is to avoid the occurrence of seizures by maintaining an effective dose of antiepileptic drugs which are adjusted to give maximum therapeutic outcomes with minimum adverse consequences. Therefore, for the treatment of epilepsy a careful adjustment of doses is necessary, starting with low doses and increases gradually until seizures are controlled and there are less significant adverse effects. Therefore; the comprehensive clinical examination and therapeutic care is needed that will help to avoid the undesired health related consequences.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
First Page:192
Last Page:195
Publisher Id:JAppPharm (2012 ). 4. 192-195
Article History:
Received:March 14, 2012
Accepted:June 17, 2012
Collection year:2012
First Published:July 1, 2012

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Editor in Chief
Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck (Philipps-Universität Marburg)
Marburg, Germany


Welcome to the research group of Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck in Marburg. Cornelia M. Keck is a pharmacist and obtained her PhD in 2006 from the Freie Universität (FU) in Berlin. In 2009 she was appointed as Adjunct Professor for Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Nanotechnology at the University Putra Malaysia (UPM) and in 2011 she obtained her Venia legendi (Habilitation) at the Freie Universität Berlin and was appointed as a Professor for Pharmacology and Pharmaceutics at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern. Since 2016 she is Professor of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics at the Philipps-Universität Marburg. Her field of research is the development and characterization of innovative nanocarriers for improved delivery of poorly soluble actives for healthcare and cosmetics. Prof. Keck is executive board member of the German Association of Nanotechnology (Deutscher Verband Nanotechnologie), Vize-chairman of the unit „Dermocosmetics“ at the German Society of Dermopharmacy, active member in many pharmaceutical societies and member of the BfR Committee for Cosmetics at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).

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Abbreviation: J App Pharm
Frequency: Annual 
Current Volume: 9 (2017)
Next scheduled volume: December, 2018 (Volume 10)
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Starting year: 2009
Nature: Online 
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