MD Kamal Hossain*ab, Daniel Sandersona, Kamrun Nahara , Dr AW Gestiera , Mohammad Salahuddin Khanc and Kaiser Hamidd
aVetafarm Pty Ltd. R&D Centre, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia. b School of Biomedical Science, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia c Department of Pharamcy, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh d University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Keywords: Ivermectin, Scaly face, Drop On, Budgerigars.

The objective of the study was to evaluate the treatment efficacy and safety of Ivermectin ‘drop on’ liquid for the management of Knemidocoptes infestation in Budgerigars. Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatis) were selected as representative of caged birds, being the most commonly affected species. Fifteen (15) birds for dose titration, eighteen (18) for efficacy and nine (9) for the safety study were used. The efficacy study was conducted over three weeks. Birds of bodyweight less than 30 g was given one drop and birds of bodyweight 30 g to 100 g was given two drops of ivermectin solution (Avimec(R) ) on the skin of the thigh and treatment was repeated weekly. The safety study was performed as an acute toxicity trial with a single application. 0.1 % ivermectin ‘drop on’ liquid was effective for the eradication of mite within two weeks. One drop (0.05mL) was effective for birds of bodyweight of less than 30g and two drops (0.1 mL) was effective for birds of bodyweight 30g to 100g. Significant improvement was observed after day 7 and complete eradication was observed within 2 weeks. For the safety study, birds were treated 5X and 10X of the standard dose. No adverse reaction or toxicities were observed. Topical “drop on” ivermectin liquid (Avimec) showed rapid and effective treatment of Knemidocoptes infection. Moreover 0.1 % ivermectin drop on liquid also demonstrated a high therapeutic index of greater than 10X of standard dose.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
First Page:233
Last Page:239
Publisher Id:JAppPharm (2012 ). 4. 233-239
Article History:
Received:July 27, 2012
Accepted:September 25, 2012
Collection year:2012
First Published:October 1, 2012

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Editor in Chief
Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck (Philipps-Universität Marburg)
Marburg, Germany


Welcome to the research group of Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck in Marburg. Cornelia M. Keck is a pharmacist and obtained her PhD in 2006 from the Freie Universität (FU) in Berlin. In 2009 she was appointed as Adjunct Professor for Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Nanotechnology at the University Putra Malaysia (UPM) and in 2011 she obtained her Venia legendi (Habilitation) at the Freie Universität Berlin and was appointed as a Professor for Pharmacology and Pharmaceutics at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern. Since 2016 she is Professor of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics at the Philipps-Universität Marburg. Her field of research is the development and characterization of innovative nanocarriers for improved delivery of poorly soluble actives for healthcare and cosmetics. Prof. Keck is executive board member of the German Association of Nanotechnology (Deutscher Verband Nanotechnologie), Vize-chairman of the unit „Dermocosmetics“ at the German Society of Dermopharmacy, active member in many pharmaceutical societies and member of the BfR Committee for Cosmetics at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).

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Abbreviation: J App Pharm
Frequency: Annual 
Current Volume: 9 (2017)
Next scheduled volume: December, 2018 (Volume 10)
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Starting year: 2009
Nature: Online 
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