Mohammad Yousuf Khan1, 2* Maria Qureshi3, Taha Nazir2, 4, Nisar-ur-Rahman5, M Khan6
1. Division of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Science, School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH, UK 2. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 Pakistan 3. Department of Special Education, University of The Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan 4. Intellectual Consortium of Drug Discovery & Technology Development, Saskatoon SK Canada 5. Faculty of Pharmacy & Alternative Medicines, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan 6. School of Pharmacy, University of Alberta, Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
Keywords: The aim of the present study was to explore the potential effect of the coating material on the aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of formoterol from Oxis Turbohaler® using mixing inlet with Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) operated at flow rate of 60 Lmin-1. As the aerodynamic properties of the emitted dose from a dry powder inhaler (DPI) are usually flows dependent but have not been calibrated for low flow rates at yet. We have used novel methodology to measure these at even low flow of 28.3 Lmin-1. The Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) designed for 60 Lmin-1 was adapted to include a mixing inlet (MIXINLET) which allows inhalation flows through the DPI from 5 to 60 Lmin-1. The mean (SD) Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) for no coating, silicone, 100% and 50% glycerin, 100% and 50% propylene glycol was 2.17 ± (0.06), 1.40 ± (1.23), 2.00 ± (0.42), 2.10 ± (0.10), 3.20 ± (0.00) and 3.17 ± (0.06) µm respectively. The geometric standard deviation (GSD) values for no coating, silicone, 100% and 50% glycerin, 100% and 50% PEG were 1.70, 0.90, 2.30, 2.53, 1.80 and 1.83 respectively. The mean ± (SD) fine particle dose (FPD) for no coating, silicone, 100% and 50% glycerin, 100% and 50% PPG was 32.31 ± (8.19), 21.69 ± (18.83), 21.13 ± (0.06), 3.86 ± (0.10) and 2.55 ± (0.05) respectively. The one way ANOVA with the application of Bonferroni’s correction was used to compare the aerodynamic droplet characteristics of the formoterol. The results indicate a significant difference between aerodynamic PSD when different coating materials were used. The MMAD was highest for PPG making it a suitable coating agent compared to other coating materials.

Coating material, Particle size distribution, ACI, Turbohaler, Formoterol.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
First Page:165
Last Page:178
Publisher Id:JAppPharm (2011 ). 3. 165-178
Article History:
Received:January 3, 2011
Accepted:March 15, 2011
Collection year:2011
First Published:April 13, 2011

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Editor in Chief
Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck (Philipps-Universität Marburg)
Marburg, Germany


Welcome to the research group of Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck in Marburg. Cornelia M. Keck is a pharmacist and obtained her PhD in 2006 from the Freie Universität (FU) in Berlin. In 2009 she was appointed as Adjunct Professor for Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Nanotechnology at the University Putra Malaysia (UPM) and in 2011 she obtained her Venia legendi (Habilitation) at the Freie Universität Berlin and was appointed as a Professor for Pharmacology and Pharmaceutics at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern. Since 2016 she is Professor of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics at the Philipps-Universität Marburg. Her field of research is the development and characterization of innovative nanocarriers for improved delivery of poorly soluble actives for healthcare and cosmetics. Prof. Keck is executive board member of the German Association of Nanotechnology (Deutscher Verband Nanotechnologie), Vize-chairman of the unit „Dermocosmetics“ at the German Society of Dermopharmacy, active member in many pharmaceutical societies and member of the BfR Committee for Cosmetics at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).

Journal Highlights
Abbreviation: J App Pharm
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/19204159
Frequency: Annual 
Current Volume: 9 (2017)
Next scheduled volume: December, 2018 (Volume 10)
Back volumes: 1-9
Starting year: 2009
Nature: Online 
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