Iradat Hussain 1,2, Muhammad Ovais Omer2, Muhammad Ashraf2, Habib-Ur-Rehman2
1 Department of Pharmacy, Margalla Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan 2 Faculty of Biosciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
Keywords: Diclofenac sodium, Angiogenesis, Chorio-allantoic Membrane (CAM) assay.

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a hallmark of almost all neoplastic and non-neoplastic degenerative diseases. This process supports normal physiology as well as it contributes in progression of different diseases. Angiogenesis contributes in growth of tumor and progressive arthritis. Inflammatory mediators are involved in cancer induced angiogenic process. Cyclo-oxygenases promote these mediators which help in cell migration and endothelial cell spreading. To explore the role of diclofenac sodium in angiogenesis we have used in vitro Chorioallantoic membrane assay. A novel image probing system SPIP (scanning probe image processor) was utilized for assessment and quantification of structural changes in CAMs. Fourteen parameters of 3D surface roughness were also evaluated for quantification. Application of diclofenac sodium on Chorioallantoic membrane at day six of incubation (0.7% concentration of diclofenac sodium) showed anti-angiogenic effect. Results showed marked changes in architecture of CAMs, thinning of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels, reduction in surface roughness parameters, increase in kurtosis of surface, and decrease in Abbott curve. The substantial quantities of diclofenac sodium use locally may exhibit anti-angiogenic activity in the same manner those seen in in-vitro and explain its clinical efficacy.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
First Page:331
Last Page:345
Publisher Id:JAppPharm (2011 ). 3. 320-330
Article History:
Received:April 15, 2011
Accepted:June 27, 2011
Collection year:2011
First Published:July 20, 2011

© 2016 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license. You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. Under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. No additional restrictions You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits
Editor in Chief
Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck (Philipps-Universität Marburg)
Marburg, Germany


Welcome to the research group of Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck in Marburg. Cornelia M. Keck is a pharmacist and obtained her PhD in 2006 from the Freie Universität (FU) in Berlin. In 2009 she was appointed as Adjunct Professor for Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Nanotechnology at the University Putra Malaysia (UPM) and in 2011 she obtained her Venia legendi (Habilitation) at the Freie Universität Berlin and was appointed as a Professor for Pharmacology and Pharmaceutics at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern. Since 2016 she is Professor of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics at the Philipps-Universität Marburg. Her field of research is the development and characterization of innovative nanocarriers for improved delivery of poorly soluble actives for healthcare and cosmetics. Prof. Keck is executive board member of the German Association of Nanotechnology (Deutscher Verband Nanotechnologie), Vize-chairman of the unit „Dermocosmetics“ at the German Society of Dermopharmacy, active member in many pharmaceutical societies and member of the BfR Committee for Cosmetics at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).

Journal Highlights
Abbreviation: J App Pharm
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/19204159
Frequency: Annual 
Current Volume: 9 (2017)
Next scheduled volume: December, 2018 (Volume 10)
Back volumes: 1-9
Starting year: 2009
Nature: Online 
Submission: Online  
Language: English

Subject & Scope
  • Pharmaceutics
  • Physical Pharmacy 
  • Dosage Forms Science 
  • Pharmaceutical Microbiology & Immunology 
  • Industrial Pharmacy 
  • Bio-Pharmaceutics 
  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry 
  • Pharmaceutical Instrumentation 
  • Medicinal Chemistry 
  • Pharmacognosy 
  • Physiology &Histology 
  • Anatomy & Pathology 
  • Pharmacology & Therapeutics 
  • Pharmacy Practice 
  • Pharmaceutical Mathematics   
  • Biostatistics 
  • Dispensing 
  • Community Social & Administrative Pharmacy 
  • Hospital Pharmacy 
  • Clinical Pharmacy 
  • Pharmaceutical Quality Management 
  • Forensic Pharmacy 
  • Pharmaceutical Technology 
  • Pharmaceutical Management & Marketing

Consortium Publisher is an online publisher that enjoys global presence with International Journals

Follow Us

©2009 - 2019 Consortium Publisher Canada

Contact Info

6252 Lisgar Dr Mississauga Ontario L5N7V2 Canada
+1 (647) 526-0885