Sadia Zafar, Faaiza Qazi, Nusrat Bano, Rabia Sheikh
Faculty of Pharmacy, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan. Faculty of Pharmacy, Ziauddin College of Pharmacy, Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan. Nigehban Compounding Pharmacy, Karachi, Pakistan
Keywords: Medication error, Prescribing guidelines, Protocol.

Background: There are different types of medication errors which are experienced by the pharmacists in hospital settings. In Pakistan number of attending Pharmacist per bed is low and is a major cause of fatal and life threatening events. Aim: The aim of present retrospective study was to assess the extent and type of medication error in inpatient medical charts. Method: The physician’s orders were analyzed by the clinical pharmacists in hospital setting during 2007-2008 in different wards. Various types of prescription errors had been reported and expressed in percentages. Result:Out of 450 medical treatment charts, 381 medication errors were found in 350 charts. The highest rate of error was the wrong dose (25%) prescribed by physicians.Infrequent errors were lack of dosage frequency, protocol for treatment, dosage form and continuation of antibiotic after prescribed treatment days. However, most frequently occurring serious errors were wrong dosing frequency (17%) and no dose adjustment according to creatinine clearance (12.8%).3.41% errors were related to directions for use of medicines. Conclusion:Our study has demonstrated large number of prescription errors and high proportion of themwere of serious nature therefore careful counter checking of medical charts is suggested.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
First Page:
Last Page:
Publisher Id:19204159.7:1.2015
Article History:
Received:November 3, 2015
Accepted:November 10,2015
Collection year:2014
First Published:January 1, 2015

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Editor in Chief
Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck (Philipps-Universität Marburg)
Marburg, Germany


Welcome to the research group of Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck in Marburg. Cornelia M. Keck is a pharmacist and obtained her PhD in 2006 from the Freie Universität (FU) in Berlin. In 2009 she was appointed as Adjunct Professor for Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Nanotechnology at the University Putra Malaysia (UPM) and in 2011 she obtained her Venia legendi (Habilitation) at the Freie Universität Berlin and was appointed as a Professor for Pharmacology and Pharmaceutics at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern. Since 2016 she is Professor of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics at the Philipps-Universität Marburg. Her field of research is the development and characterization of innovative nanocarriers for improved delivery of poorly soluble actives for healthcare and cosmetics. Prof. Keck is executive board member of the German Association of Nanotechnology (Deutscher Verband Nanotechnologie), Vize-chairman of the unit „Dermocosmetics“ at the German Society of Dermopharmacy, active member in many pharmaceutical societies and member of the BfR Committee for Cosmetics at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).

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Abbreviation: J App Pharm
Frequency: Annual 
Current Volume: 9 (2017)
Next scheduled volume: December, 2018 (Volume 10)
Back volumes: 1-9
Starting year: 2009
Nature: Online 
Submission: Online  
Language: English

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