RISK FACTORS LEADING TO HIGH PREVALENCE OF BREAST CANCER
Rabia Tariq, Sadia Huma, Marriam Zaka Butt, Fatima Amin
Department of Pharmacy, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan
Keywords: Breast Cancer, Risk Factors
Abstract

Breast cancer in women causes psychological and physical distress. It is the most commonly diagnosed female cancer in all cancers. Breast cancer is among the top 20 causes of deaths in Pakistan. It is believed that various factors such as gender, age, socioeconomic status, family history, physical activity, smoking, breastfeeding/lactation, no. of full term and incomplete pregnancies, hormonal and reproductive factors influence the incidence of breast cancer. A prospective as well as retrospective study was conducted on 100 patients in different hospitals of Lahore, aiming to evaluate risk factors leading to high prevalence of breast cancer in women. A questionnaire was designed to obtain patient history, patient complaint and management regarding disease. Females of all age groups were included in the study. The data collected was analyzed and presented in the form of graphs and tables. The results were derived and conclusion presented. Women with advanced age, having middle class family background, higher body mass index and a high ratio of incomplete pregnancies were at significantly increased risk of breast cancer. Obesity and the use of oral contraceptives are minor whereas family history, employment status, physical activity and smoking don’t serve as risk factors. The protective role of breastfeeding/lactation and full term pregnancies is suppressed and not very significant.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
Year:2013
Volume:5
First Page:27
Last Page:33
Publisher Id:JAppPharm (2013 ). 5. 27-33
Article History:
Received:November 23, 2012
Accepted:December 15, 2012
Collection year:2012
First Published:January 1, 2013


© 2016 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license. You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. Under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. No additional restrictions You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits
Editor in Chief
Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck (Philipps-Universität Marburg)
Marburg, Germany

Bibliography

Welcome to the research group of Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck in Marburg. Cornelia M. Keck is a pharmacist and obtained her PhD in 2006 from the Freie Universität (FU) in Berlin. In 2009 she was appointed as Adjunct Professor for Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Nanotechnology at the University Putra Malaysia (UPM) and in 2011 she obtained her Venia legendi (Habilitation) at the Freie Universität Berlin and was appointed as a Professor for Pharmacology and Pharmaceutics at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern. Since 2016 she is Professor of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics at the Philipps-Universität Marburg. Her field of research is the development and characterization of innovative nanocarriers for improved delivery of poorly soluble actives for healthcare and cosmetics. Prof. Keck is executive board member of the German Association of Nanotechnology (Deutscher Verband Nanotechnologie), Vize-chairman of the unit „Dermocosmetics“ at the German Society of Dermopharmacy, active member in many pharmaceutical societies and member of the BfR Committee for Cosmetics at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).

Journal Highlights
Abbreviation: J App Pharm
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/19204159
Frequency: Annual 
Current Volume: 9 (2017)
Next scheduled volume: December, 2018 (Volume 10)
Back volumes: 1-9
Starting year: 2009
Nature: Online 
Submission: Online  
Language: English

Subject & Scope
  • Pharmaceutics
  • Physical Pharmacy 
  • Dosage Forms Science 
  • Pharmaceutical Microbiology & Immunology 
  • Industrial Pharmacy 
  • Bio-Pharmaceutics 
  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry 
  • Pharmaceutical Instrumentation 
  • Medicinal Chemistry 
  • Pharmacognosy 
  • Physiology &Histology 
  • Anatomy & Pathology 
  • Pharmacology & Therapeutics 
  • Pharmacy Practice 
  • Pharmaceutical Mathematics   
  • Biostatistics 
  • Dispensing 
  • Community Social & Administrative Pharmacy 
  • Hospital Pharmacy 
  • Clinical Pharmacy 
  • Pharmaceutical Quality Management 
  • Forensic Pharmacy 
  • Pharmaceutical Technology 
  • Pharmaceutical Management & Marketing

Consortium Publisher is an online publisher that enjoys global presence with International Journals

Follow Us

©2009 - 2019 Consortium Publisher Canada

Contact Info

6252 Lisgar Dr Mississauga Ontario L5N7V2 Canada
+1 (647) 526-0885
office@consortiumpublisher.ca
http://www.consortiumpublisher.ca/