ANTIFERTILITY ACTIVITY OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA DESCOURT PULP AND SEED HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT
Sheeja Edvin Jerald1, Ajeet Pandey2, Papiya Bigoniya2* and Shilpi Singh2
1 B.R. Nahata College of pharmacy, Mahu Neeemuch road, Mandsaur, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmacology, Radharaman College of Pharmacy, Bhadbhada Road, Ratibad, Bhopal, India
Keywords: Antifertility, Antiovulatory, cucurbetaceae, Momordica charantia Descourt; spermicidal
Momordica charantia Descourt (Cucurbetaceae) known as Karela is an extremely bitter vegetable, commonly found in India. M. charantia had reported anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti- inflammation and antioxidant properties. It is used as antifertility agent in folklore; however no studies have been done on its antifertility action. Anti-fertility potential of the M. charantia hydroalcoholic extracts of seed and pulp was explored on in vitro spermicidal, antiovulatory, in vivo estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity along with uterus histopathology. Data were presented as M ? SEM and analyzed with ANOVA followed by t-test. MCHS and MCHP are tested for its antifertility activity at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, orally as it was found safe on acute dosing of 2000 mg/kg. Pulp extract at 1280 µg/ml concentration caused significant damage to the sperm membrane integrity as evidenced by the reduction in sperm viability and tail curling. Administration of pulp extract at 400 mg/kg dose caused significant (p < 0.001) increases in uterine weight in immature rats while co-administration with ethinylestradiol decreased the uterus weight and increased the height of luminal epithelium with stimulated glands. Pulp extract at 400 mg/kg dose also caused significant (p < 0.001) prolongation estrous cycle and diestrous phase. Among the two extracts tested at two different doses, the hydroalcoholic pulp extract of M. charantia at 400 mg/kg was found to exhibit antifertility activity may be due to rich presence of triterpenoidal glycosides, flavonoids and alkaloids.