products play an important role in the treatment of different diseases. The
history of use of plants for different conditions is very old. The earliest
records found show that plants have been used in Mesopotamia and Egypt
thousands of years ago. Numerous phytochemicals have been isolated from
different plants which are now being prescribed by medical practitioners all
around the world .
Conocarpus lancifolius belongs to the family
Combretaceae. It is extensively grown in Kuwait and some other Arab countries
due to its ability to grow in extreme environments. The plant exists in the
form of tree which can grow several meters in height . Previously, the plant
has been studied only for Anti-plasmodial, Anti-leishmanial
and Anti-trypanosomal Activities . The aim of the present work is to report
the antimicrobial activity of the plant for the first time.
aerial parts of Conocarpus lancifolius
were collected during the winter season from Pattoki, Pakistan. The plant
material was identified by Dr. Ajaib Choudhary, Department of Botany,
Government College University Lahore. The voucher number received for the plant
was GC.Bot.Herb. 2205.
Preparation of extract
plant material was shade dried and ground into coarse powder. It was extracted
by cold maceration twice using methanol. The extract obtained was dried using
rotary evaporator and stored in air tight container in a refrigerator until
media were purchased from Himedia, India. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was
purchased from Sigma Aldrich, USA. Methanol was obtained from Panreac, Spain.
clinical isolates of Staphylococcus
aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Proteus
mirabilis and Klebsella pneumonia
were used for the antibacterial assay whereas the clinical isolates of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger,
Candida albicans and saccharomyces
cerevisae were used for carrying out the antifungal assay. All the
microbial strains were supplied by Institute of Molecular Biology and
Biotechnology, The University of Lahore.
activity of methanolic extract was determined using
disk diffusion method of Mbata et al,
 with some minor modifications. Stock solution was prepared by dissolving 20
mg of the extract in sufficient amount of DMSO to make the final volume equal
to 1 ml. 20 µl of this stock solution was impregnated to sterile paper disks (6
mm diameter) and dried. Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) media was prepared and
solidified in sterile Petri dishes. The surface of the agar in each plate was
swabbed with a different bacterial strain cultured in nutrient broth. The
extract loaded disks were then placed on the surface of the swabbed agar media
and the diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured after 24 h of
incubation at 37 oC.
Antifungal activity was evaluated by
a method quite similar to the one used to determine the antibacterial activity
. Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) media was used instead of Mueller-Hinton
Agar media and a fungal suspension prepared in normal saline was used for
swabbing the surface of the solidified agar media. The diameters of zone of
inhibition were calculated after incubation at room temperature for 24h.
results of antibacterial activity are given in table 1. The methanolic extract
of C. lancifolius was tested against
6 bacterial strains. Against any microbial specie, the activity of the extract
was considered to be present if the diameter of the zone of inhibition was
equal to or greater than 7 mm. The antibacterial activity was found to be
highest for K. pneumonia where the
zone of inhibition was recorded to be 11mm. The clinical isolate of B. cereus was also found to be sensitive
against the extract showing a zone of 9mm. Low activity (8mm) was found in case
of E. coli and P. aeruginosa whereas no activity was found against S. aureus and P. mirabilis. Results show the presence of antibacterial activity
in the plant thus indicating plant to be of medicinal value.
activity of the methanolic extract was also studied. The results from the assay
showed the presence of low antifungal activity in the plant extract. The only
fungal specie which showed sensitivity towards the extract was S. cerevisae. A zone of inhibition of
7mm was recorded for this strain (see table 2). Standard drugs were also tested
against the microbial strains and their results have also been tabulated (see
table 1 and 2).