ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS REVIEW OFECHINOPS ECHINATUS ROXB.
Faculty of Pharmacy, BahauddinZakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
Keywords: Echinopsechinatus, ethnopharmacolgy, phytochemistry, antiferility plant
Abstract

EchinopsechinatusRoxb. is a traditional plant that use medically traditional prescribing system. E. echinatus found in different in regions of Pakistan and India. Different evaluation methods are wereuse to know the phytochemical and pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, Diuretic, analgesic, anti fertility of the plant. The aim of this review to summarized the works on E. echinatus.It is concluded that besides of in-vivo studies, it also need to check the in-vitro studies of the plant. This miracle plant also need to more explore and discussion.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:
Year:2015
Volume:7
First Page:65
Last Page:69
Publisher Id:19204159.7:1.2015
Article History:
Received:December 20, 2014
Accepted:December 24, 2014
Collection year:2014
First Published:January 1, 2015

INTRODUCTION

The genus Euphorbia comprises the largest genus belong to spurge family that belong to virtually 2000 species.Euphorbiaceae is the heading family between the Angiospermae having 300 genera and 5000 species.EchinopsechinatusRoxbis the useful traditional medicinal plant. The chemical constituents of EchinopsechinatusRoxbare studied for their biological activity and medicinal applications. The more common phytochemicals present in E.echinatusareechinopsine, echinopsidineandechinozolinone. The commonly part used are whole plants, Roots, Seeds and Leaves. E. echinatuswidely distributed in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India

Taxonomic Classification

Kingdom                                Plantae

Phylum                  Magnoliophyta

Class                      Magnoliopsida

Subclass               Asteridae

Order                     Asterales

Family                    Asteraceae

Genus                    Echinops

Species                 Echinatus

Common names:

1.       English: Indian Globe Thistle

2.       Gujarati:                Shuliyo, Utkanto, Utkato

3.       Hindi:                     Gokhru, Uthkanta, Utakatira

4.       Sanskrit:                Kantalu, Kantaphala, Utati,

5.       Urdu :                     Utkantaka,

Botanical Morphology:

E.echinatusis a stiff, young, yearlyherbhavingalmost one to three feetin height, having widely spreading branches from base

Leavesarethe lobes triangular and oblong, sessile,simuate and spiny,  covered with cottony wool beneath,oblong, pinnatifid ,alternate, , the spines often 2.5 cm long. deeply pinnatifid leaves are 7 to 12 cm long.

Flower heads are white or purple with compact, globoselybunched at the ends of branches; involucres surrounded by tough white bristles approachingpopups-hairs; poppus short, yellowish, making a short cylinder-shaped brush above the achenedomes occur in solitary white sphere-shaped balls, 3 to 5 cm across.

Traditional Uses:

Alterative, diuretic, nerve tonic (used in hoarse cough, dyspepsia, scrofula, hysteria),anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal. In Pakistan and India, it uses the suspension of root bark powder in milk (100g/ 250ml) for the treatment of diabetes.  The traditional Aurevda healers of Chhattis-garh, India use E.echinousherbinternally and externally for the treatment of sexual disorders. In case of patients having poor sexual vitality, aqueous paste of the root bark powder is applied externally on the male genitals one hour before intercourse.E.echinousis advised to inhale the fumes obtained by burning the leaves & rootsto patients of respiratory disorders predominantly asthma to get fast and everlasting relief.

The root is abortifacient aphrodisiac. The seeds are sweet and aphrodisiac (Aurveda). The plant is bitter, stomachic, antipyretic, analgesic, increases the appetite stimulates the liver, useful in brain disease, used in ophthalmic, chronic fever, pains in the joints, inflammations, the root is aphrodisiac (yunani).

Phytochemistry:

Aerial parts of the plant contain alkaloids, echinopsine, echinopsidine and echinozolinone. Taraxasterol acetate, Apigenin and its derivatives, echinacin and echinaticin.  2',5,7- trihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy flavone-7-O-b-D-galactopyranosyl-[1®4]-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside is testified from the seeds.Apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, and a new acyl-flavone-glucoside named echitin (I)  and a minor alkaloid 7-hydroxy echinozolinone (I)  were obtained from the flowers of  E. echinatus

An anti-inflammatory active flavanone-glycoside 5,7-dihydroxy-8,4'-dimethoxyflavanone-5-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-b-D-arabinopyranosyl-(1®4)-O-b-D-glucopyranoside A along with a known compd. dihydroquercetin-4'-Me ether is also reported from leaves.. Four phenolic compounds;apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, echinacin (I), and echinaticin (II), were are reported from E. echinatusRoxb.

Isomeric acyl-flavone-glycosides echinacin (I) and echinaticin (II) were also obtained from E. echinatus.In 1997 Chaudhuri PKfound the alkaloid  the EchinozolinoneBesides of echinopsine and echinopsidine, a new alkaloidechinozolinone, had been recognized in herb as 3(2-hydroxyethyl)-4(3H)-quinazolinone from its spectral data[1, 2]. Beaidesapigcnin ‘J-O-glucoside, a new acylatedlactone had been recognized in herb  asapigenin 7-0-~(4”-cis-pcouyl~~~e from spectral and chemical analysis[3, 4].

Flavones and Fiavone glycosides

The Four phenolic compounds were isolated apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, echinacin, and echinaticin in 1988.By the methylation of apigenin -7-0glucoside and echinacin, two derivatives are obtained i.e. echinacinpermethyl ether and apigenin-5,4'-dimethyl ether, respectively.Aisoflavone glycoside was isolated during the Chromatographic determination of the methanolic extract of E.echinatus.The echinoside was the recognized isoflavone [mp 268–270oC, C27H30O12]. IR spectrum showntheoccurrenceof  chelated carbonyl (1650 cm-21)  and hydroxyl (3300–3650 cm-21) functional groups in molecule. On acid hydrolysis, it gave glucose, rhamnose and an aglycone[5, 6].

The glycoside methylation by Hakomori method formed a methylated product which on further introduced to methanolysed to give 3,4,6-trimethoxy-D-glucose and 2,3,4-trimethoxy-Lrhamnose and the aglycone, 7-hydroxyisoflavone.

Pharmacological Activities:

1. Antifungal activity:

.Apigenin,echinacin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and echinaticin are the  four phenolic compounds that were isolated from of E. echinatus. The methylation of echinacin and apigenin-7-O-glucoside permethylategave the two derivatives echinacin-permethyl ether and apigenin-5,4'-dimethyl ether respectively. These all compounds wereevaluated against growth of conidia of Alternariatenuissima. Wiltshire, All exposed high effectiveness against the pathogen at concentrations ranging from 25 to 150-1mL µgEchinacin, which was highly active at 150-1, is considered the most promising of these compounds and its use as a control measure against Alternaria blight of pigeon pea[6]

2. Anti-inflammatory:

The ethanolic extract ofE. Echinatuswas used to evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant. This study was conducted on an rats. In rats, carrageenan and formaldehyde were used forinflammationand the chronic arthritisby formaldehyde.Plant extract effectively inhibited the acute inflammation. It was also observed that theextractshow more effect when administratedparenterally than orally[7, 8].

3. Analgesic:-

Methanolic extracts of aerial parts and roots was usedevaluated the Analgesic potential of plant in albino rats. Hot plate, Tail immersion and Tail flick models were uses to evulate the Analgesic activity of plant. The parameter of the study was reaction time. Pentazocine was used as standard. The results indicate that methanolic extracts at 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg, as results indicate the body weight significantly increase in reaction time when test groups compared to control group. The extracts of aerial parts and roots of herbdisplaysignificant Analgesic activity.

4. Diuretic

For Diuretic activity of plant used methanolic extracts of aerial parts and rootsin albino rats and using in vivoLipschitz test model for evaluation.  The parameters of the modelwere the volumes of urine and concentration of Na+ and K+ ionsin urine.  The diuretic drug Frusemide waschoose as standard for model. The results of demonstration shows that methanolic-extracts of both parts at 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg bodyweight express a noteworthy increase in the urine volume and electrolyte such as Na+ and K+ ions excretion ascompared of test groups  to control.[9]

5. Effects on testosterone

E. echinatusextracts weakened the riseof the prostatic per body (prostatic/ body )weight ratio in which testosterone play a key role for this ratio. TheButanol fraction of extract showed the best activity as compared to non-fraction extract.The levels of Testosterone weremonitored weekly and also measure the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Further histological studies had shown asignificantdevelopment in prostatic histo-architecture in the extract-treatedgroups when these groups compared with testosterone treated group.  The studies suggest that the use of E. echinatusasBrahmadandi is not justifiable in light of its anti-androgenic action. E. echinatusproved to be a promising agent for the treatment of BPH[10]

6. Reproductive parameters of male rats:-

To checked the reproductive parameter, theterpenoidal fraction was prepared from the petroleum ether extract of the roots of plant. Two different doses of 30mg/kg and 60mg/kg was selected for model usingalbino rats. Terpenoidal fraction  treated rats exhibited a decrease in reproductive organs weight without disturbing the final body weight of rats, and a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in serum testosterone levels and caudaepididymal sperm concentration  as compared toalbino rats in the control group[11, 12].

CONCLUSION

It is concluded from above discussed summarized review, that Echinopsechinatusis a miracle plant, it need more finding and discussion to for E.echinatusherb. There is also need of in-vitro studies to explore the mechanisms of plant activities.

REFERENCES:

1.       Chaudhuri PK: 7-hydroxyechinozolinone, a new alkaloid from the flowers of Echinops echinatus.Journal of natural products 1992, 55:249-250.Chaudhuri PK: Echinozolinone, an alkaloid from Echinops echinatus.Phytochemistry 1987, 26:587-589.

2.       Ram SN, Roy R, Singh B, Singh RP, Pandey VB: An acylflavone glucoside of Echinops echinatus flowers.Planta medica 1996, 62:187.

3.       Chaudhuri PK, Thakur RS: An acylated flavone apigenin 7- O-ß-D-(4 ?- cis- p-coumaroyl) glucoside from Echinops echinatus.Phytochemistry 1986, 25:1770-1771.

4.       Singh S, Upadhyay RK, Pandey MB, Singh JP, Pandey VB: Flavonoids from Echinops echinatus.Journal of Asian natural products research 2006, 8:197-200.

5.       Singh U, Pandey V, Singh K, Singh R: Antifungal activity of some new fiavones and fiavone glycosides of Echinops echinatus.Canadian journal of botany 1988, 66:1901-1903.

6.       Singh B, Gambhir SS, Pandey VB, Joshi VK: Anti-inflammatory activity of Echinops echinatus.J Ethnopharmacol 1989, 25:189-199.

7.       Sing B, Ram S, Pandey V, Joshi V, Gambhir S: Studies on antiinflammatory activity of taraxasterol acetate from Echinops echinatus in rats and mice.Phytotherapy Research 1991, 5:103-106.

8.       Somashekar A, Mishra S: Pharmacognostic parameters for evaluation of the roots of Echinops echinatus marketed as brahmadandi.Pharmacognosy magazine 2007, 3:196.

9.       Agrawal M, Nahata A, Dixit VK: Protective effects of Echinops echinatus on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.European Journal of Integrative Medicine 2012, 4:e177-e185.

10.    Sharma KS, Mishra S, Mehta BK: Antifertility activity of Echinops echinatus in albino rats.Indian J Med Sci 1988, 42:23-26.

11.    Chaudhuri PK: 7-hydroxyechinozolinone, a new alkaloid from the flowers of Echinops echinatus.Journal of natural products 1992, 55:249-250.

12.    Chaudhuri PK: Echinozolinone, an alkaloid from Echinops echinatus.Phytochemistry 1987, 26:587-589.

13.    Ram SN, Roy R, Singh B, Singh RP, Pandey VB: An acylflavone glucoside of Echinops echinatus flowers.Planta medica 1996, 62:187.

14.    Chaudhuri PK, Thakur RS: An acylated flavone apigenin 7- O-ß-D-(4 ?- cis- p-coumaroyl) glucoside from Echinops echinatus.Phytochemistry 1986, 25:1770-1771.

15.    Singh S, Upadhyay RK, Pandey MB, Singh JP, Pandey VB: Flavonoids from Echinops echinatus.Journal of Asian natural products research 2006, 8:197-200.

16.    Singh U, Pandey V, Singh K, Singh R: Antifungal activity of some new fiavones and fiavone glycosides of Echinops echinatus.Canadian journal of botany 1988, 66:1901-1903.

17.    Singh B, Gambhir SS, Pandey VB, Joshi VK: Anti-inflammatory activity of Echinops echinatus.J Ethnopharmacol 1989, 25:189-199.

18.    Sing B, Ram S, Pandey V, Joshi V, Gambhir S: Studies on antiinflammatory activity of taraxasterol acetate from Echinops echinatus in rats and mice.Phytotherapy Research 1991, 5:103-106.

19.    Somashekar A, Mishra S: Pharmacognostic parameters for evaluation of the roots of Echinops echinatus marketed as brahmadandi.Pharmacognosy magazine 2007, 3:196.

20.    Agrawal M, Nahata A, Dixit VK: Protective effects of Echinops echinatus on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.European Journal of Integrative Medicine 2012, 4:e177-e185.

21.    Sharma KS, Mishra S, Mehta BK: Antifertility activity of Echinops echinatus in albino rats.Indian J Med Sci 1988, 42:23-26.

22. Padashetty S, Mishra S: Effect of terpenoidal fraction of Echinops echinatus roots on reproductive parameters of male rats.Journal of       
              natural medicines 2007, 61:452-457.


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Welcome to the research group of Prof. Dr. Cornelia M. Keck in Marburg. Cornelia M. Keck is a pharmacist and obtained her PhD in 2006 from the Freie Universität (FU) in Berlin. In 2009 she was appointed as Adjunct Professor for Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Nanotechnology at the University Putra Malaysia (UPM) and in 2011 she obtained her Venia legendi (Habilitation) at the Freie Universität Berlin and was appointed as a Professor for Pharmacology and Pharmaceutics at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern. Since 2016 she is Professor of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics at the Philipps-Universität Marburg. Her field of research is the development and characterization of innovative nanocarriers for improved delivery of poorly soluble actives for healthcare and cosmetics. Prof. Keck is executive board member of the German Association of Nanotechnology (Deutscher Verband Nanotechnologie), Vize-chairman of the unit „Dermocosmetics“ at the German Society of Dermopharmacy, active member in many pharmaceutical societies and member of the BfR Committee for Cosmetics at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).

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